The fact that the Soviet Union suffered a complete defeat in the “cold war”, being denied, both from outside and inside in 1991, and primarily, on information-psychological war is already so obvious to everyone that a long time is not the subject of any scientific debate or political discourse.The mythology of the ideologues of neo-liberalism on economic insolvency of the USSR, with the result that he, allegedly, by itself, without outside “assistance” and “collapsed”, ultimately based on Marxist dogma about the primacy of the “base” or secondary “superstructures”, to which they, probably, do not believe.
One of the ideas developed in Cybernetics, is that there is the possibility of using processes with low cost energy, to control the phenomena related to the use of much more energy.
Neoliberals, has broken from the mid-1980s to the power or there carefully conducted by the curators of the project type of the Directive of the Council of National security of the United States 20/1 of August 18, 1948 and such doctrines, gave “thanks” destructive management about what still can be observed in our supposedly very market economy, i.e., intentional bringing of the control object, for example, an economic entity to bankruptcy, for the purpose of personal gain, ordered the elimination of a competitor or any other preferences.
Is it always appropriate in such case to talk about economic insolvency of the company as the management object, if the problem is not in the object but in the subject and the quality of management? The same subject always comes from its own ethical considerations, psychological preferences and underlying value orientations, and those quite, can not only have a highly spiritual nature, but also degradation-parasitic in nature.To conduct information and psychological war against the countries of target management that provides the faint of heart, inscribed in the matrix of their interests, dependent “leaders” with a deformed psyche, or low moral aspirations in principle, it is not very troublesome and doomed to success.
Remember the state of the “basis” of the Soviet Union immediately after the second world war: the complete devastation of the economy in the European part, the exhaustion of all the resources thrown into the crucible of war, the destruction of the best parts of the gene pool on the battlefields and demographic collapse, hunger, malnutrition and other “Superstructure”, on the theory of the Marxists, would have to collapse, because of this fragile base, a cellar under the whole country, this colossus with feet of clay. But this did not happen. Does “basis” of the mid 1980-90’s was weaker post-war, resulting in the “collapse” of the USSR?Maybe the thing is, who does what, who and how manages? We will try to understand.
The effect of de Tocqueville
The main means of modeling socio-political reality, especially in the information society, remains the language. At the same time, the basis for efficient social interaction is reflexive speech activity, i.e. conscious, deliberate use to achieve their interests saronicos language as a social phenomenon as well as a tool for organizing and managing the experience of social reality.Some researchers, referring to the cybernetic properties of a language, I believe that he, as a semiotic system, is the programming tool even phonemic and lexeme level by controlling not only the mind but also the human physiology.
One of the ideas developed in Cybernetics, is that there is the possibility of using processes with low cost energy, to control the phenomena related to the use of much more energy. This, in fact, is the essence of any management mechanisms, and social, historical, political processes. Public policy is a process in terms of energy cost-effective.But the result of skillful political speech can be a phenomena that change the course of historical development, driven by large social groups, armies, lead to the collapse of regimes and States, in short, affecting the social consciousness, cause the forces of a huge energy potential. Accordingly, political rhetoric can partly be seen as a verbal method of achieving political goals, both for the speaker and the social group whose interests it represents and defends.Often the intention of the one who formulates the political sense, is to change the social or political situation. Under certain conditions, the corner-stone can be supplied stabilization, preservation or apologetics of the existing realities.
Political forces aspiring to power, tend to design new concepts, but also to fill the old forms with new content. Catchy campaign concepts, such as “quality of life”, “freedom”, “justice”, “society of achievement”, “civil society”, “market economy” is already described as instruments of domination, had considerable success in the Russian society in the “perestroika” period. But even more dangerous than usual, and familiar words are meant to mean something different than before and thereby reprogramming the public consciousness.We illustrate these points on two prominent historical examples.
Trying to establish the true causes of the French revolution, a famous statesman and politician Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) in 1850 analyzed the pre-revolutionary economic dynamics in its work, “L’ancien Régime et la Revolution” (“the Old regime and the revolution”) and found that the level of life of various strata of French society, their welfare before the revolution had risen continuously. That is, using Marxist terminology, it could be argued that, in fact, the basic reasons for the revolution, Tocqueville discovered.However, he noticed that long before the writings of the thinkers of the Enlightenment, often associated with the Masonic currents caused in the nascent French bourgeoisie strong belief that the monarchy formation there are conceptual alternatives (angels of life), i.e. the confidence that the French monarchy is illegitimate. Loss of faith in the legitimacy of the monarchy and the existing social order has led to, according to Him, the destruction of French society and the revolution.
In modern language, the conceptology revolution was successful subversive operation or information-psychological attack on the then state-political regime. Public speech in the National Assembly such deputies as a Freemason, count honoré de Mirabeau (1749-1791), through the oratorical impact on the public consciousness was created, in fact, a new social and political reality.
So, at the meeting of the French Chamber of deputies on 23 July 1789 he became master of ceremonies and the king gave the order on the dissolution of the last Chamber. Occurred the dramatic confusion. But first there was count Mirabeau, who answered a Royal dignitary.
“Yes,” replied the Earl – “we heard the king’s orders, Yes, my Lord” – he repeated – “we heard…”
Perhaps repeating the words, even the count himself vaguely wondered what he should say next. But then, suddenly, he, in turn, asked the master of ceremonies:
– “But what gives you the right to tell us here on some orders? We, the representatives of the Nation. The nation gives and not receives orders … tell your king that we will leave their places only on the bayonets.” As soon as the master of ceremonies of the king departed, Mirabeau proposed the immediate issue of the deputies of the National Assembly. Speech act caused, first in the mind and then to life a new institution of political power, created a new political reality.
While testing the hypothesis about the effect of de Tocqueville on the example of the Soviet Union in early 1990-ies have analyzed economic indicators, characterizing economic condition of the country in the first half of the 80-ies of XX century. It was determined that the Soviet economy was experiencing serious economic difficulties, however, the performance and quality of life were not the lowest in its history.So, economic decline in 20 years (after civil war) and devastation in the second half 40-h years (after the second world war and German occupation), accompanied by hunger, is not comparable in its economic parameters with the condition of the Soviet economy of the 80-ies.However, this loss of faith in the legitimacy of the Soviet system that existed in the years of perestroika, was not in the 20-30-ies or 40-ies marked, on the contrary, the increase of social motivation and work morale, pride caused by the enormous economic growth the first five-year plans, military victories, scientific and technical achievements of the USSR, etc. One Gulag it is not all explained.
We conducted a computerized content analysis of political speeches of the times of “perestroika” and statistical processing of the results showed that there was a strong correlation between the topics discussed in the speeches of politicians, with the types of metaphors used to simulate political reality. It was found that for modelling the economic and political state of the country in the pre-perestroika period when discussion of such key topics as the dictatorship, bureaucracy, corruption, economic and environmental constraints,D. most frequently used anthropomorphic images. Such metaphors, even if they are not perceived as original (creative), carried a significant emotional charge. On the second place on frequency of use were closely related to anthropomorphism of the metaphor from the field of health, hygiene and social medicine (“the decomposition of the higher strata of society”, “moral cleanliness”, “toxins queues, caused damage to the liver public”, “society is safe again democracy”, etc.).
This type of metaphors in frequency was followed by images simulating the scenes of violence and horror: “fix my head”, “linked”, “storm microphone”, “broken soul”, “with a bloody shovel in one hand and in the other Constitutions” (about the events in Tbilisi). Closely with this group of metaphors was correlated images of catastrophe and destruction: “Lithuania under the axe of the environmental catastrophe”, “the domestic market crushed”, “collision with the Constitution” and many others.
A significant cluster was formed by metaphors from engineering, physical and climatic events: “wind of perestroika,” the critic as “the spray of a stormy sea”, “air of democracy”, “freedom is like a fire that can warm but also burn, Gorbachev as “the generator and the lightning rod” of criticism, “brake adjustment”, “political and economic levers of power”, “practice broken bolt”, “steam of discontent was aimed at the buzzer, filters bureaucracy”.
Important cluster was formed by the images of the field of architecture and construction of the “European house”, “the dismantling of the vertical structures”, “reconstruction of the state house began with the roof” and images from the navigation area: “the political course of the party”, etc. All these clusters of metaphors, in conjunction with the topics modeled in the social consciousness the way breaking the state machine; as a ship sailing the wrong course or to the bottom; the image of a society whose body was mortally hurt and rot, spreading the stench; the way the economy teetered on the edge of the abyss, etc.If this were all involved neuro-linguistic channels of information processing.
These modeling techniques were influenced not only and not so much on rational public consciousness, how many, and more materially, emotionally, weakening the rational perception and cognitive processing objective factual information. Social statistics of those years recorded a persistent decline in social motivation and work-ethic of the population.There was a growing unwillingness to work on the existing system, which was perceived as hostile, clearly there has been a growing frustration, expressed, including, in the increase in the rates of suicide, mortality due to alcohol abuse, the decline of productivity, increase in crime etc.
Under the influence of some other factors, but not least, thanks to modeling and programming features of the political rhetoric of those years, especially certain metaphors in the public consciousness has begun an irreversible dismantling of the old system of values, which ultimately undermined confidence in the legitimacy of the existing socio-political system, potentiate the paradigm shift and facilitate the realization of the goals of the political forces that sought to overthrow the regime and the collapse of the USSR as subject of international law.The proposed alternatives were perceived by the public consciousness on an emotional level as very attractive (“breath of free air,” “democratization,” “transparency” etc.). Obviously, it worked all the same effect of de Tocqueville, on which someone had already accelerated. The consequences are well known.
Therefore we must not underestimate the methodological levels of influence on social consciousness and social processes, especially, in connection with and reject the proposed alternative value system. A characteristic feature of metaphors is their ability to bypass the mind, affecting the emotional sphere, to facilitate a more effective indoctrination of a certain semantic content.At the heart of this phenomenon, as showed in the days of the founder of Soviet neuropsychology Alexander Luria (1902-1977), are the neurophysiological interaction between the two hemispheres of the brain.
The higher the level of spiritual development of man, the least amount of weaknesses, the more Autonomous his mind, the better functioning of its self-regulation, the more difficult these people to manipulate.
The highest level of dominance
Violence in the modern world is becoming more soft, elegant shape, adopting the latest discoveries in the field of art, science, engineering and information technology. But it is not enough to subdue the enemy will, it should be disarmed. This is the ultimate goal of any war – said the founder of West German intelligence, and before that, Nazi General Reinhard Gehlen (1902-1979) is known for the idea of German military theorist, historian and Prussian General Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831). This is the case in information and psychological wars. Here the most important means to achieve this goal are language and images. It is in the “corrupt language” some scholars see the essence of sophistry. In “the corruption of the words” and, to put it scientifically, the destruction of the semiotic structure of a sign loses its communicative character and touch with reality. This dual loss means that the word is transformed into a lie. Where lies, in fact, there is no dialogue, and “talking to”, and this “on purpose”, ultimately aimed at the enslavement of the person to whom it is addressed. That’s when language becomes a tool of “soft” (soft) violence.Political dominance covertly connected with the sophistic “corruption” of words. The desecration of man begins in the same, almost feel the moment when the word as sign loses its semiotic integrity.
For the social role of contemporary political rhetoric in developed countries of post-modernism, unlike its antique understanding, characterized by the fact that it contributes not so much subject to discussion and persuasion, how much apologetics and imposed the previously existing opinions, judgments and prejudices. Disordered feelings and thoughts attributable to mental and social realities, articulista repeatedly in discourse and are reproduced in the media. People are pushed into the narrow framework in which they must make a choice imposed on them.The contradiction between the necessity of formation of own opinions and the inability of Autonomous thinking, is the source of readiness not only to adopt the imposed ideological paradigms, but also, more importantly, prepared the language. The user is a language that is not linguistically able to simulate real-world conditions and processes, is forced to follow ready-made formulas. Often he is unable reliably to double-check, does adequately in established notions of reality, and therefore does not recognize its possible manipulative distortion.
In other words, in the information-psychological war, when the warring parties, not to the truth, the decisive political battle is won only when we can impose to the opponent the language and ways of thinking that will not allow him to formulate vital or national interests. Unfortunately, in contemporary postmodern society the sovereign is the only one who can describe the reality “at the expense of others” and to establish in a mandatory manner appropriate to its interests linguistic sociolinguistic and regulation in the legal sense. Who owns the language to such an extent, dominates the people. The creed of the masters of globalization is clear: to disarm the enemy by imposing a paradigm of concepts or the ideologeme through which he will not be able to understand and articulate its vital interests, i.e.”squeeze” the thinking of a layman or of a political opponent in contrary to his interests a system of value orientations, to impose on him its language the regulation or management. To adopt the language of the enemy so unwittingly become his hostage or a slave.
Thus, the observation of political discourse and media reports times of both Chechen campaigns revealed that even politicians and military commanders of the highest rank, i.e. the people of the state, due to think of the state, with amazing perseverance used lexical material from an Arsenal of ideologies crammed in Russian public consciousness of the opponents of reconstruction in Chechnya, the operation of the RF Constitution, Federal laws and sovereignty of Russia.This should include manipulative such designations as “fighters” instead of “bandits”, “the warlords” instead of “the gang”, “Chechen units” or “fighters of the Chechen resistance” instead of “a band of mercenaries, thugs and terrorists” (or at least: “members of illegal armed formations”). Even the simplest semantic differentiation by Charles Osgood (1916-1991) allows you to identify the manipulative nature of the conceptual-denotative formulas.
Something similar we see today on the example of the civil war in Ukraine. If the Ukrainian media did a wonderful job overseas consultants on issues of propaganda, information and psychological wars, then, though not from all, but from a number of Russian correspondents, editors and commentators we hear again jammed “warlords” against the thugs of the “national guard” and “right sector” (by the way, skillful manipulative designation) who selflessly and irreconcilable “struggle” with the “terrorists” and “Russian mercenaries”.Some of our journalists, wittingly or unwittingly, grist to the mill of the Kiev propaganda machine unreflective use of the terminology imposed upon them material.This is all the more surprising that at faculties of journalism, they would have to learn a military occupational specialty 093500 – “Organization of psychological warfare, specialization based code specialization in foreign languages”, which, by the way, to a group of WSC 09 – “Organization and management of intelligence”, in which, as is well known, not only information but also misinformation of the opponent plays a lesser role in this and should be able to understand. They have nothing there, not learned or consciously do so?Where did military spectrophonic, which was prepared previously in the universities of the Ministry of defence? There is much to think about,for kontseptologicheskie, information-psychological and linguistic violence is the ultimate level of dominance over man. At this level already achieved such a degree of enslavement of minds, in comparison with which physical coercion seems to be outdated and not promising.
Is it possible to resist this violence? There is a way: the higher the level of spiritual development of man, the least amount of weaknesses, the more Autonomous his mind, the better functioning of its self-regulation, the more difficult these people to manipulate. You need to always remember: who does not understand something or do not know, can be easily inscribed in the matrix of interests and plans, one who understands and knows more. Confirmation that we are watching very often, especially in international politics.