The second humanism draws attention to the fact that the subject (cogito of Descartes) is not an immanent given, but a concept associated with a certain culture and, accordingly, with παιδεια, that is, educational and scientific practices. Here science comes to the understanding that the dismantling of medieval dogmas has led to the emergence of a new dogmatism – the dogmas of the Enlightenment – the subject, object, reality, matter, cognition, rationality, progress, history, etc. So the prerequisites are laid for what later turned into Postmodern, which, as we shall see later, was, in fact, a false start.
Historicism also contains numerous dangers and traps. Paraphrasing Herzen’s remarks about Westernizers and Slavophiles, it would be appropriate to say that post-modernists take the world as a prophecy, while neo-modernists view it as a reminiscence. The prophecy turned out to be cooked up by self-obsessed dilettantes, crude and short-lived, and the reminiscence may actually be daydreaming leading one away from the real world. Moreover, a clash of mismatching “big narratives” can cause acute political conflicts as vividly proved by the Chinese and Japanese versions of the history of World War II in Asia. Besides, how long can one walk forward while looking backward all the time?
Itineraries of postmodernism consist of ecstatically attractive elements. As Baudrillard said, today is not people who take pictures of objects, but the objects make people photograph them. It is the property of a topos of ecstatic. This element of the surrounding space, which causes in us the sudden motion of something that we still have. The Church of this ecstatic topos is “McDonald’s”. This is the postpartum ecstatic topos. McDonald’s note, he is happy, and for a very short period of time. It pleases, amuses, entertains and not understand anything — the food there is tasteless, no content in the “McDonald’s” is not present, the vitamins, too, but, nevertheless, it is postmodernist utopia, a place that does not exist. And it sits a clown, showing that this place is ironic, a mockery of the idea of the restaurant, food, food, this pseudo-food, where people come, do not understand why, and so there is some kind of miracle… “McDonalds” — this is also an example of black miracles, because neither the cause nor the purpose is present.