​​Ethnosociology is not simply the sociology of the ethnic groups. It is something quite different. It is the particular method of studying human society as the development of its primordial and basic ethnic structure.

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Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere | Lev Gumilev

Unlike most mammals Homo sapiens cannot be called either a gregarious or an individual animal. Man lives in collectives that are regarded, depending on the point of view, sometimes as a socium, sometimes as an ethnos. Or rather each human being is simultaneously a member of a society and a representative of an ethnic national group, but these two concepts are incommensurable and lie on different planes, like length and weight, for example, or a degree of heat and an electrical charge.

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