When the mountains were red

Though religion has always played a central role in the make-up of Pushtun identity, Pushtun nationalism (especially in the 20th century) was always a more secular and left-leaning phenomenon. It still is.

This nationalism’s modern manifestation was founded on the thoughts and actions of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Bacha Khan) and expressed through such left-wing parties as National Awami Party (NAP), Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party (PkMAP) and the Awami National Party (ANP).

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Political and military factions in Kurdistan | MAP

Kurdistan is divided between 4 countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. It has been the scene of several regional conflicts over the past 25 years. This has led to a complex political and military situation in each country where several political parties are defending Kurdish people rights, and are controlling their own military groups. The conflicts are also widely influenced by the two main regional powers, Turkey and Iran, which all have their client factions. The article and the map are not an exhaustive list of all groups involved, but aim at explaining who are the main Kurdish actors in each country and what their relationship is

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Peoples’ United Revolutionary Movement established for a joint struggle | ANF

10 revolutionary organisations from Kurdistan and Turkey have announced the establishment of Peoples’ United Revolutionary Movement as a unity of force and action formed in the wake of discussions ongoing since December.

Representatives of 10 revolutionary organisations attended a joint press meeting in guerrilla zones to announce their alliance with the purpose of stepping up the revolution in all areas including armed struggle against the “collaborative fascist AKP and TC (Turkish Republic) system of sovereignty”.

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