Chapter 2. POSTMODERNITY AND BLACK MIRACLES
Part 1. Reason, purpose, miracles
Three paradigms: a reminder about the method and importance of postmodernity
Despite the fact that the title appears first “Postmodernity”, and then “black miracles”, the order of presentation will be the reverse: first we will discuss the black miracles, and then postmodernity.
I want to draw attention to the methodology of presentation: you should always have in mind paradigmatic approach, which lies at the heart of this book.
I recall briefly: there is the paradigm of pre-modern (traditional society), the paradigm of the modern (post-traditional, modern society) and the postmodern paradigm — the same strange paradigm, which, in principle, cannot be, but which is. It is what interests us the most.
The paradigm of postmodernism is not really described by anyone. I recently decided to look through the literature on postmodernism, and it turned out that a big part is the materials abortive kind. But, nevertheless, the subject is terribly interesting, and touches it is scheduled at the French school. Those who believe that the topic is well researched, obviously disqualified, they do not understand what was going on. To overcome the postmodern hurriedly, it was impossible to overcome the New time is even harder. This is no Orthodoxy in the study of post-modernism does not exist, so this phenomenon we should again and again to think practically from scratch. Despite the fact that these things have written tons of books, most important to tell and close. The postmodern need to study as if none of it had heard nothing or heard in bits and pieces.
If we don’t understand what is Postmodern, we shall not understand what the Radical Subject and the end of the world, and it is very important to understand.
The concept of cause and purpose: why? and why?
So, to business. What is the reason, purpose, and miracles?
In Russian language we don’t usually do big difference between the question “why?” and “why?” in principle, it is for us, it seems almost the same. But from the philosophical point of view, it is absolutely different things. “Why?” refers to the reasons — why was so-and-so, “why?” — for the purposes of what is happening.
On the basis of the analysis of these philosophical concepts — reasons and goals — you can see what a miracle, and as it is understood in the framework of our three paradigms. So we come to what we call”black miracles” — to the explosion postmodern virtual quasi analogue, which is an ecstatic smack of postcommunism.
The reason and purpose in premodern (manifestationism)
The pre-modern paradigm includes manifestations and creationism (1). Consider manifestations more primordial form of Tradition.
In the paradigm of manifestationism no idea of rigid causality of phenomena. Phenomenon-the man, the creature, the world, the wind, the stars — there, and their causes, strictly speaking, can not be. The reason human Tradition (manifestationism) couldn’t care less about. Why the stars Shine — is not so important, and that’s why they Shine — that’s another matter. The goal is. This is one of the main themes of Aristotle’s philosophy — what most interested in ancient Greek philosophers of the manifestations was the sense — the goal, the telos.
Aristotle uses a special term — “entelecheia” — “purpose in itself”. Entelecheia is the presence of the target. Every thing, from the point of view of manifestations, carries its own purpose, its own meaning. Thing in a higher dimension, in its ideal archetype, your destiny is the telos, the goal. A causal chain that leads to the achievement of this goal may vary, and , ultimately, arbitrary. The Genesis (origin) directed to a definite goal, and a causal chain which leads to its accomplishment, can be used interchangeably. In this sense the notion of destiny, fate, fate, and later the Christian concept of Providence.
For example, people went into the street, slipped, fell, was run over by a tram and died. “Went outside” causes. It would seem, “do not go” would have not died. But from the point of view of entelechy as the death of a person at a given moment is the goal (the fulfillment of destiny), he can not go outside, but decides to take a bath, he has a heart attack, he will choke and die. That is going to die anyway. But will he go outside or will not go — not important. Whatever the cause of death, that death is the meaning of this episode of human life. Or another example, a young man went to the disco, fell in love, got married, children were born. Did not go to the disco — still in love with a lady, married, still children… Telos prevails over reason.
Thus, in the thinking person entelegynae not so important, why was there a particular event, and consequently, the elucidation of the causes of a specific event, to think through a logical chain leading to any particular result, much of ancient time did not spend. The focus of human Tradition was focused on the telos, the goal, in the sense of: if something is, then it obviously makes sense. And that is the meaning of a thing, phenomenon, event, fascinated the attention of the people pre-modern, and a logical chain of precedence could be arbitrary.
In the pre-modern paradigm the key question “why?”. He is principled and very specific, and the question “why?” secondary.
Renegades of Abdera
In the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophy, no one usually did not ask the question about causality of phenomena, but talked a lot about the order of events. Except for one suspicious group of thinkers from the Thracian city of Abdera. All presocratics philosophy that is suspicious, very disturbing and malicious nature connected with the city of Abdera. Out came the scum that you can imagine — atomist Leucippus, Democritus, and even the Sophist Gorgias, who claimed that the world was created from nothing, is also there. Wherever you spit — come to Abdera. This is the only group of philosophers atomists that thought about not why, and why the universe came about, that generally did not bother anyone: not worried Xenophon, Anaximenes, Anaximander, Heraclitus, Thales, Empedocles, Parmenides, no one at all, and this group of Abdera care. But this is a special question, what terrible things have been happening at night in Thrace that the people there asked the question “why?” although at the time all the normal people in Greece asked the question “why?”.
Why? and why? in modernity
Comes the paradigm of modernity. All the signs change to the opposite. We’ve talked about the opposition of the contemporary language and language Traditions.
From the point of view of modernity, the relationship between the questions “why?” and “why?” turn. In the philosophy of modernity (modernity in paradigm, not the temporal sense) are all strictly on the contrary: there is the question of “why?” but there is no “why?”. Each phenomenon is very strictly deterministic: from the collision of one particle with another will fly the third, or the energy will appear, or it will undergo entropy, or something else that determine the subsequent trajectory. If the first and second particles do not collide with each other, the third never, under any circumstances, fly, energy will not increase and will not decrease, and something else is also not going to happen… But when is the question, why the third particle to leave the collision of these two, people of modernity (modernism) shrug and say: this question is ill-posed, we are only talking about deterministic chains.
So, if in the traditional society there is a clear understanding of the purpose and meaning of the phenomenon, no matter how he is treated in every philosophy, in every model, in every mythological painting is the why, which interprets in its own way, but each time this meaning is, and in relation to the reasons there is freedom (maybe so, but maybe in a different way or for some unknown reason), from the point of view of the paradigm of modernity, the opposite is true — very precisely predefined reasons koncertnogo phenomena but it is not specified, its value, its meaning.
Who corrects the orbits of the planets?
Take Newton, the Creator of the modern scientific world. Newton explains why circling the planet (they are attracted to the force of gravity), but as soon as he is faced with the problem of deviations from this deterministic model, he says, well, here intervenes God-the mechanic who corrects the orbit so they didn’t fall. The thinkers of modernity in the early stages of formation of a deterministic philosophy still clearly visible logical holes, glitches, and to avoid them they resort to extravagant (for people in later stages of modernity) explanation.
Karl Popper as a fighter against entelecheia
In the paradigm of modernity there is a hard determinism of structures, absolutely unambiguous understanding of the causes and multivalued on purpose. Thoroughly explains why there is boiling water, and why — remains an open question.
Antinomistic the theses of the philosophers of Abdera — actually became the basis of the ideology of the modern world. Then, in the pre-Socratic period, it was a bunch of renegades, today is “world government”, bringing the paradoxes to the status of dogma. Theorist of the liberalism of the twentieth century, Karl Popper dwells on the criticism of Aristotle, and especially on the doctrine of the entelechy. It would seem that this topic has been the focus of philosophers of the Renaissance, when new followers of Democritus (in the first place, Galileo Gaul) struggled with Aristotle. Why is criticism of teleology became relevant again in the twentieth century, when liberalism and the paradigm of modernity, of course, dominate? Popper and Hayek try to clean it from all possible modern survivals, which are able to penetrate modern in the sly, playing on the unconscious. And the most striking manifestation of this intrusion, this secret revenge Traditions, they rightly believe any hint of teleology and sense the presence of life goals and orientation, which appear as in Hegel or Marx, and political doctrines of non-liberal (illiberal) wing – both right and left.
So, if premodern, traditional society, clearly knows why, but clearly knows why, modern society, modernity, by contrast, clearly knows why, but it does not know or randomly wondering why. In traditional society, there is a teleological determinism or predestination of purpose, but in modern society there is causal determinism, that is determinism reasons.
Erosion of causality plus the erosion of teleology
We now turn to the postmodern. In the postmodern erosion and teleological and causal determinism. From now on, we are now dealing with a world in which it is absolutely not clear, why and similarly, it is unclear why. The phenomenon is, but this phenomenon quite arbitrarily may be substituted (any) reason and equally arbitrarily substituted (any) purpose. Something happened, but why it happened and why happened, the question now is not put. This is a fundamental feature of the postmodern, and if we understand, reflect on it, the world that surrounds us — his images, objects, processes, attributes, anchormen, comedians, politicamente and politicians — appear in a completely different light.
The discourse of postmodernism opens the chain of causes and effects. This discourse obviously is based on erosion of causal determinism, that’s why we’re talking about postmodernity, i.e. not only about modern style, but something fundamentally new that comes after it. However, the term postmodern is stored and the reference to modernism because the postmodern does not mean antimodern something from modernity is inherited. Inherited erosion teleological determinism but that was the essence of the epistemological paradigm of modernity.
And target causal chain in the postmodern become arbitrary or hypothetical, and therefore, each individual is free to subjectively guess why something happened and why it happened, since no scientific, mythological or religious axioms no longer exists.
How to treat postmodern traditionalists?
Brief parenthesis and some looking ahead: why we love postmodern? This question is often asked. We “love” postmodern just because we don’t like modern(2). Postmodern crushes the strictures of modernism, its inhibition, and pre-modern, from the person whom we, the traditionalists, are is a chance. I want to stress — nothing morethan chance, but not less. This principle, and it is filled with axiological load of the proceedings.
A miracle in premodern
Now let’s see what is a miracle?
Consider a full premodern. A miracle in premodern, traditional society — it’s just a normal, inherent quality of existence. Being in the premodern always wonderful, always fascinated, always enchanted (FR.), bezaubert. This fascination is peculiar to stay sacred person in the sacred world. People of traditional society lives in a universe of wonder. Eliade attempts to allocate the elements of the profane in primitive and traditional (sacred) societies, but agree, if you carefully read his books, he succeeds with difficulty; rather, it projects an archaic religious society criteria inherent in the monotheistic Abrahamic civilization.
In fact, for the full man in full traditional society does not exist nicolasnova. His eyes are wide open and at the same time full of magic, that he could contemplate: fly, solar beam, who came to visit spirit, stinking corpse of a ferret, which is rotten in front of the gate of his hut, a lunar Eclipse or foaming waterfalls. It with the same degree of interest, attention, horror and some internal fun attitude towards all of it.
People Traditions is a deeply funny man. By and large, the fun never left him, never, night nor day. He lives in a wonderful flow and even, in spite of a nail, a hammer or even your finger, its bursting with the feeling of incredible loading: Genesis gushes over the edge always, in all directions. As soon as a man of traditional society stops, he begins to laugh and have fun, even if it is very sad, even if he is a slave who builds a pyramid because, in fact, all of Genesis is full of so many ontological light rays, which break and slip through all that for him everything is wonderful.
Russia nerazgadannaja country
A small digression. Clearly in Russia until very recently-Yes, probably, and now something was — there were elements of the traditional society. Fedor Sologub, decadent writer of “silver age”, begins his novel “Petty demon” with the assertion that in Russia, the monstrous reality and the monstrous real. The chain of definitions — a wonderful, terrible, wonderful, weird – goes back to the same root. These things are not opposite. Where the monster is, there miracles. Indeed, the monster is also entertaining in its absurdity, incoherence, it returns people to the fascination, although in the aspect of horror that is too funny…
The space miracle
The space miracle in the Tradition is the space absolutely everything is wonderful. Human Traditions even difficult to explain that there are miracles and non-miracles, because theoretically, in the open the world can take place any phenomenon, which is only represent-able (or re-presentable). Birds take children to a distant country, bears marry village girls and play loud wedding, the deceased ancestors come to visit the descendants, bringing with the light, Golden apples, and many other wonderful and useful items for the stove domovina gives birth to brownie, the river laughing mermaids and sea sirens moaning, man fastens to the cart wheel, and the spring kept pace with the millet. All equally familiar and magical. Will there be something or will not occur, will happen or not, will lead to him some deterministic circuit, or will not, care. The man of Tradition does not share the events of the world into the possible and impossible, and therefore all is well and all is well. All meaningful flows and, where necessary, what I know only old wise men, and others simply believe it…
This wonder becomes possible due to the fact that all levels of existence ontologically linked with a Golden thread, which dissolves one state or entity to another, the sky dissolves in the earth, a woman in a man, look into the subject of contemplation…
A miracle is the presence of sense and soul in everything what has to do people Traditions.
A miracle in creationism
Here we must make a small digression about the creationist approach, typical of the monotheistic traditions. Avraamizm substantially corrects the above-described idealistic picture. It is fair to archaic societies, which almost fully include today’s India, China and even Japan, along with all the other far Eastern cultures, as well as the archaic tribes of Latin America, Africa or the Pacific. Many peoples of the world – and the majority of them! – continue with the paradigmatic point of view, to live in a Golden age, in Paradise, in the space of continuous miracles. When we talk about the miracle — it does not mean that we are talking about a really fantastic event, it is about perception. For the Papuans of New Guinea or rural Brahmins in North India is a miracle-worms, perfumes, dirt, rain, gods, stars, noses — continues today. Miracle with us. Because premodern exists today. If we will be able to recognize it, if we can look at ourselves and the world miraculous eyes, we can imagine what a full traditional society.
Creationism, monotheistic religions break this ideal picture. The paradigm of monotheism lies between traditional society and the paradigm of modernity, is an intermediate stage. On the one hand, it is still traditional society, with another — this is the background of modernity.
In creationism (Creator-Creation), as presocratics philosophers atomists, for the first time in the history of religion appears causal determinism. Creationism says: God creates disposable way the only reality. This is the absolute element of determinism. Here there are clear cause and clear result (the creation has a purpose, it’s the coming of the Messiah and the restoration of reality in its original form).
But the fact of Creation gives rise to a gap in manifestacionist space of continuous miracle. The Creation itself is, of course, a miracle, invocado. But this kind of miracle in their chudesnoi the only and unique, as a unique Creator. Everything else will certainly be less than wonderful. From this hierarchy the comparability of the Creator and the Creation would later develop the idea of provalnosti, decadenet.
Genesis and eschatology
In monotheistic traditions, as a rule, there are two most important element is the origin, ontogenesis (the Book of Genesis, which begins with the Bible and eschatology — eschatology (Apocalypse). While causal determinism stated in terms of the creation of the world is dissolved and removed, as a strictly predefined logical system of eschatology, the doctrine of the end. Therefore, if we consider the representation of monotheistic traditions about the beginning and about the end times, in the beginning, we see causality, and in the end times we will see teleological determinism. And the reality, which is described as the Messianic era, in fact paradigmatic manner reproduces the teleological deterministically peculiar to pre-modern. In other words, within creation there are two ontological circle: one, conceptually associated with the postconventional logic of modernity is causal determinism; the other is eschatological, associated with manifestations is teleological determinism.
Total real and wonderful reality begins in Christianity in the Messianic era with the descent of the Heavenly Jerusalem, and this is not just a violation of the usual order of things, but the most fundamental of possible events — the return of the rejection of the Creator Being in His bosom, which, in principle, violates a one-dimensional causal logic of Creation and asserts the ontological relationship where, in terms of a simple causal chain, it could not be. Because created from nothing, the Creation cannot be the Creator, as it has been, and is, nothing. But the end of the world promises just such a miracle.
The miracle of Christianity
Christianity — the religion based on miracle. The miracle is not because Christ has carried out amazing things, but because the very fact of His incarnation was absolutely not representable, the impossible and unthinkable in a strictly causal system of Jewish theology. The Messiah waited, but God and the son of God no. Therefore, the birth of Christ and said this is “angels nevedomoe sacrament.” The angels see right, all in their heavenly world is logical, everything is calculated and caused by. All except for the birth of the Son of God as son of man. It really is a miracle because it opens up the humanity and the world new hope, new freedom.
A miracle as an exception
Ograblenie we can say that in the framework of the monotheistic religions exists relative sacredness, relative wonderful. Yes, a miracle can always be, but as an exception, because it violates some of the causal logic. We often inertia, and operate with such a monotheistic interpretation of the miracle as an exception. When we say “miracle”, we mean: there is something can not be a failure causal chain.
Man in manifestations traditions — Buddhist, Hindu, or member of an archaic tribe — it is difficult, if not impossible to explain that we, as representatives of Abrahamic (in the roots) culture under understand miracle breakthrough causal causal chains, a phenomenon that is not predetermined by the causal logic, recognized as the world background and events of this world.
Soviet atheism as a lesson of causality
In the atheistic Soviet films of the non-existence of God was proved in the following way: the gray-haired scientist with a beard and robe twisted handle device, where between the electrodes there is a discharge of electricity – like lightning in miniature. He said, turning to the assembled peasants or students, “see how it works?! And you lied to the priests that the Holy Elijah to heaven in a chariot rides. It is not only God does, but I can.” But anyone from the creationist theologians that would have surprised you? From the point of view of successive creationism, in the zip there is nothing wonderful, is a consequence of the heavenly (angelic) displacement: angelic armies moved and lightning struck. Everything is logical and understandable. The causality of the logical functioning of the created world is described differently than the atheist-grammaticale with his device, but otherwise the mating of the causal regularities in no way detract from the faith. Therefore, religion is theoretically able to take and science – a description of the causal chains monotheistic world order is not a dogma region. There are well-established models, as a rule, emphasizing the symbolic interpretation, but in any case, the choice of rational system of explaining the world – this is a question that can be discussed.
An atheist with zipper obviously wasn’t speaking to theologians, but to the archaic premodernists Russian national sacred the public, which, despite everything, saw the world as something not selectively, but completely wonderful. He is not so much the lack of demonstrated of angels or of God as hypnotically insisted that the world is mechanistic, deterministic from the point of view of its causal reasons at the time, as the basis of Russian psychology is pantotenate, savrsenstvo the world. He was killed by a Russian in Russian. In a gentle way did the enlightenment starting with Peter’s time, gradually trying okatolichit, to rationalize or to protestantizing Russian folk sacred! – Orthodoxy.
So, a miracle in a monotheistic context is the possibility of (future) meaning (purpose). Telos, of course, is, but it is associated with violations of the causal system, and therefore two models-causal and target (teleological) — in the history of Christianity constantly overlap each other.
In modernity there is no miracle
We turn now to the paradigm of modernity. Is there a miracle? It is obvious that in modernity there is no miracle and can not be precisely because modern (in its most pure liberal — sort of) denies intrinsic meaning and teleology. There is a system of strictly deterministic phenomena that could comprehend — and as natural selection, and as the meaningless pushing of atoms, particles, molecules and pandemonium ciliates, accidentally resulting in the occurrence of apes and tumbling monkeys are also accidentally deduces from them the first homo sapiens. And as if all types no flickers — they have no purpose, no telos to become something else. Everything has a cause, but nothing has purpose. Determinism is absolutely indestructible in the modern, so modernity is no miracle.
What do you mean “no miracle”, speaking in the language of philosophy? This means under no circumstances can’t happen failure, deterministic causal structures. Every phenomenon there is always a strictly defined set of reasons, the existence of which is not subject to question. If we do not know this system reasons, if we have no idea what it is, it does not mean that it is not. And then begins the modern science.
The modern world is le monde desenchante, entzauberte Welt (Weber) is the world time-stop spell, which has no charm, which has lost its wonder, lost its fun dimension. It is a dull and sad world in which there can be miracle. There are a lot of things, but there is no miracle. It has no purpose and values that this world does not lead anywhere, the world simply is, it happened, he has a strictly defined structure and this structure is irrevocable. Total causality of the paradigm of modernity denies the possibility of failure, and that it is fundamentally different from monotheism..
· secureshot manifestationsthe pre-modern
· polling class the monotheistic paradigms
· basculement, recordandote paradigm of modernity
and now we come to postmodern.
In the postmodern appears again miracle. But what significance does it have, what kind of miracle? I define it by the term “black miracle”. Why is it “black”? Because this miracle is not fundamentally make sense. Imagine that there is something fantastic exciting, absolutely nothing leading, nothing meaning.
Determinism in the system of postmodernism is completely decomposed, eroded, subjected to erosion. The phenomenon that occurs in the world of postmodernism, there is no reason (that is the reason it can be any). We can arbitrarily choose any hypothesis and say that it happened because of that and because of something or the exact opposite.
Since there is a blurry causality, and every phenomenon is separated from its causal relationships, it may be so, but may be different it may be, but may not be. So there is the ontology of pure chance, aleatoric ontology. We go beyond the field of rigid lattice of modernity, which determines each phenomenon. The miracle is possible because it is not impossible. Since there is no clear confidence in the causal predetermination of what is happening, why not occur some extraordinary and unusual phenomenon? Moreover, why not take place only in extraordinary and unusual phenomena and why not perceive everything that happens with us as extraordinary and unusual? “Why not?” — says the man of the postmodern era and is gradually drawn into the charm of this proposal.
Virtuality as such, its onset, progressive conquering her space in our life and is a wonderful postmodern. Virtuality is a black miracle. Why? Because it is meaningless. And it is characteristic of postmodernism. A miracle in the postmodern occurs for anything.
If the premodern miracle testified of total pronizannogo rays of life all levels of life, of all beings, if in the monotheistic religions, the miracle determined the failure in the hard model of relation Creator-Creature, and showed the prospect of a possible redemptive eschatological freedom, if the paradigm of modernity miracle does not exist, then black miracle postmodern perhaps it is, but it is pointless, it has no purpose, no value, it generally means nothing. Black miracle is just and calls us to recognize it as a fact.
Stones falling and flying
There is the energy of black miracle. This energy is an ironic refutation of causal networks. For example, a person throws a rock upwards and it falls and goes up to somewhere higher. Why did he throw the stone? It’s hard to say. But the stone flies, and the people escorted him puzzled looks. It is important not to disprove the theory of gravity, not to prove what a strong man. It is ironic mockery of our habit to the fact that the thrown stone must fall. But fell he fatally fell, please note that only in modernity. Before the onset of the modern era have thrown up a stone was an entirely different trajectory. We know that in the Christian world, people with faith of a mustard seed moves mountains, Holy men appeared in different places simultaneously, and it is not the fact that all Christians thrown stones definitely fell. I think the majority still fell, but it does not flowed from Christian teaching, and so were the stones that fell. Orthodox tradition claims that one of the Russian saints Anthony the Roman, Wonderworker of Novgorod, sailed to Russia on the stone. The stones were broken in the biblical story of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream without the help of human hands. And if we consider the mythology of the stones in the traditional world, we will see that what did not occur to them… On the rocks swam, they flew, they went, they ate, they include Merlin, they were born as Mitra, the stones lived his rich stone and periodically detected in the most improbable contexts. They have been an independent tense, full of destiny, better than many bipeds.
Of course, in the Christian era with the stones was a little more complicated than before, but was a secret of the stones — the stone of the Holy Grail, a magical emeralds that makes people invisible — that is, in the history of the stones, their UPS and downs, there were many examples of failure deterministic causal network.
Really fatally the stones began to fall the stones only for Newton after his head fell an Apple. After that, all the rocks started to fly at exactly the same speed and g is always downwards.
But let’s see what happens with the stone in the postmodern. Why does it fly? Because successful advertising is to Hod. for Example, open a bottle of beer “Tinkoff”, the tube goes up, then it’s gone and not coming back… This stone falls up instead of falling down, is expected in the modern era, by and large, does not mean anything at all just watch and be surprised. This does not mean no refutation of Newton’s law, or his confirmation, it just generally means nothing, and one thinks, well, something I drank yesterday, and overdid the dose. It is necessary to “Tinkoff” SIP… This phenomenon belongs to the category of simple black wonders of the postmodern.
Black a celebration of meaninglessness
In the postmodern can happen anywhere, but only with the proviso that it will not mean anything. Once in the postmodern there is a miracle, this miracle, having as its objective or its overtones some indication, for example, the failure of the causal networks or the wonder of the world, a miracle like this will be instantly cancelled, challenged, exposed, ridiculed and disqualified: it won’t. Happen just senseless, idiotic miracles that do not teach anything, does not pay, and just a momentary ironically distract us from the bottomless depths of boredom, in which man resides postmodern. It’s — momentary momentary flash of ironic interest that immediately dissolves in the all-consuming boredom.
In order for humanity not to fall down into nowhere and not smeared on the concrete, these black miracles proliferiruyuchei System that we could not for a moment be free. If the stone does not fall, then is already something else. The main thing — to attract the flash of our ontological attention, to suck out people’s recent interest in what surrounds them.
It is clear that nobody will be able to attend lectures by device steam machine, to do physics, mathematics, it’s not interesting. Modern has lost its charm, he destroyed everything he could, he destroyed the whole traditional civilization, but he has exhausted its potential, it is not interesting, and the people, when they say something about modernity, progress, social justice, yawn. Even the most convinced, even Trotskyists sleeping, not speaking about ordinary people, because modern has completely lost its charm, it is no longer attractive, or all that can be destroyed, it is all that can be enveloped (aimless) causal networks and ended its existence. Today we can only engage with something extraordinary, something postmodern, something from the category of black miracles.
What can you give as examples of black miracles? Black miracle is, for example, teleportation. When they say that now is the acceleration of means of communication, it’s true. In the traditional world, too, was teleportation, but she was “normal” — people woke up in the same town, drank another, and went to bed in the third, and each of these cities was separated from the other by vast distances. But this is only the profane world, the miles have a strict quantitative measurement. From the point of view of the traditional world, between different points in space is multi-dimensional routes. There is a secret underground utilities, where from Moscow to Tokyo at hand, and from quarter to quarter of the same city do not walk in my life… this tell stories about travels on the wind, flying carpet, the humpbacked horse, or on a particular animal the Buraq, as did Muhammad in his magical journey from Mecca to Jerusalem.
Today black the miracle of teleportation is done through mobile phones, Internet, airplanes, it really is people today here and tomorrow there, almost as wonderful traditional world. The only difference is that his travels, his displacement and the contents of its communications lose any value.
Today, everyone can talk to everyone on the mobile phone, but let’s hear what people say, what we are talking about. Let us fix, make a note in the diary talks with each other, with friends or with relatives. And if to write it all down, and then carefully, slightly detached look at it, we understand that, despite the enormous resources and communication opportunities, the substantive aspect of communication is drastically reduced. We are, in principle, talking nonsense, speaking on his mobile, send SMS or MMS, pay for it, but by and large we have nothing to announce, we have nothing new to learn. The teleology of this communication process is extremely low, if not absent.
People before communication went to each other’s homes from one village to another: until you are going until you go, and there would be rain — we have to postpone, then the road was impassable, and on the way wolves was found, the robbers — a whole life, but when it came to another village sat and talked for real. Gave the whole world, told them what I was thinking, while walking, while with the wolves and the thieves were busy. In this case, communication has acquired great meaning. Today she facilitates, the space disappears, and with it escapes meaningful way. And basically, now young people is becoming more and more fashionable just grunt something to the phone to each other, bleat, to bark, to meow, to make some smacking of lips, just like in the Russian stage… Someone calls someone in the subway says: “I Want you now, I Katya LEL sing?” And sings something incomprehensible. This communication is, in principle, belongs to the category of black miracles. Can be at a great distance at any time to talk with a colleague. But what is it? And at this moment, when people think “what”, he becomes very sad and to not think about it, he sits to the TV to see it in Hawaii or somewhere on the plane.
Business as miracle
A huge number of people, by the way, believes that business people are business people that make reality. I thought so too, until a little bit with them is not met. More senseless than the business, at least in Russia, does not exist. People fly halfway around the world, they sit and lose hours, weeks and years in some negotiations, as a result of the transactions does not take place, because all the money goes to some absolutely free and Autonomous from these negotiations. And if they are, then they are, and if not, they are not added. And this is a huge business activity of the Russian business community — it’s just a cover aleatoric communications. In fact, businessmen just like to fly airplanes, to change offices in the same office with the palm tree and the other trees already there, and there is fish to the aquarium, and the more poor businessman, so he more beautiful, expensive and powerful fish in the aquarium. In fact — it is also the black miracle, black miracle business.
What other miracles prepares the postmodern? This is the miracle of cloning, that is, the serial reproduction of humans. Before people had a clear reason — mom and dad, who each other got acquainted, became friends, became each other to care, to flirt, married and finally had children. There’s a reason? Is. Already in modernity, the meaning of the children became less and reason more. Mom and dad accidentally met, and the results of their similarities after the fact came up with some excuse — the kids need to defend the homeland, to create jobs, to increase consumption. That is, the meaning was blurred, but mom and dad are real. In the postmodern sense in children is not as modern, but there will be mum and dad. Children therefore are born already adult and independent, cautious and prudent. Almost with grey temples. The first thing they will see in their flasks – anxious face of Professor, changing them the solution.
Immortality — another element of black miracles. We know that before actively conducted the process of cryogenic freezing various wealthy and influential citizens in the hope of future miracles of science for subsequent resurrection. So, Walt Disney the Creator of animated American neonatologii freeze for the future… Now they are already starting to slowly defrost. Say, already have some thawed in America. It’s a pointless resurrection is very significant is described in two literary works — Gustav Meyrink and Yuri Mamleeva. From Meyrink “the White Dominican” neospinothalamic pseudo-Messiah raised in their petitions a downed cart beggar, and his fans shouted: “a Miracle! A miracle! The Messiah Had Come!” But then, about a day, this beggar was again hit by a cart. In the latter circumstance and reveals the characteristic black of the resurrection: why would someone resurrect, if it is still a day to be hit by a cart?
From Melnychenko, a luxurious collection of stories “the Sky above hell”. In one part, “as above, so below” also works the black Messiah with a strange name Panarelli. It is the same as marinkovski character, gave life to the different creatures, mostly animals, but the neighborhood kids teased him that brought him dead cats, he also raised them, they are again killed, and he again raised, and so the day he is raised infinitely for a mountain of dead cats. Another example of black miracle.
Our attention shifts from the problems of poverty, millions of undernourished Africans to house cats or to the fate of the pooch, which has ill leg… Really, using the enormous resources of modern medicine doctors can resurrect the pooch, but the fact that millions during this time will disappear — does not matter, because humanism is also exposed to the postmodern erosion, like everything else.
Another black miracle reduplication of the “I”. It is also very revealing. The question here is not about cloning in the sense of production people, and on the playing reduplication, about gamer attitude to the world. Computer games are a form of miracles, because people playing a computer game, can be anything. If he’s a pimply teenager-wit, in the game he is huge, muscular hero who brandishes a sword, attacking, raping, killing, blood splatters across the screen. And thus, there is a transfer of the personal “I”. “I —real”, fixed, modernist “I” — more and more narrowed or, on the contrary, swells from hamburgers does not fit is in any of the chairs (recently, a teenager died from exhaustion, unable to break away from computer games), and a cloned “me”, a virtual representation of yourself as a brave hero, a cheerful Superman begins to become permanent identification.
A crucial element of the postmodern become the drugs. Drugs had different functions throughout the modern era, but postmodern without them is almost unthinkable. Drugs that is a straight ticket to the postmodern. A person buys a dose, as the ticket for the tram and finds himself in a world of black miracles.
What drugs? First of all it is pseudozizeeria or dismembered initiation. It is the initiation into partial birth, provided that there is a waiver of any integrity. In a drug experience is found background of the world that is deeper than the world of bodily forms and surface feelings and thoughts — but only in fragmentary form. The meaning of the drug experience and the proliferation of drugs in that part of the show and never show the whole, and, moreover, to show the part so that whole never, under any circumstances, it was impossible to see them or be interested in.
The sacredness of the whole pre-modern, a kind of “pan-drug-addiction”, because there is generally no difference between wonderful and not wonderful and magical and not magical, energetic and not energetic. The sacredness of creationism — election. The sacredness of art Nouveau is missing. But black the sacredness of postmodernism, narcotic culture is fragmented.
Yeti and UFOs
Part postmodernist miracles described in quite familiar registers and parallel neospinothalamic trash-culture based on it. What we see on TV “X-Files” of UFOs, rods, aliens, snow people, all of this comes in the postmodern and becomes our reality. This is not fiction, it’s not imagination. What is a Bigfoot, a Yeti? If premodernists dragons, dwarves, elves, nymphs and fauns were associated with a very serious, fundamental aspects of ontology, the snow man is just the item extremely idiotic imagineria representatives of the postmodern. This is a creature that leads nowhere, nothing tells us that it is, in principle, we are very similar, but slightly different. And thinking about Bigfoot, catching Bigfoot, cut from Newspapers notes about Bigfoot is one of the wonderful hobby of postmodernism.
Recently I saw an absolutely wonderful program about rods. This is some flying done, which is sometimes visible, sometimes not. There is a Symposium on the rods, people are going to learn them one pilot even took the rod. You are actually creating a culture of yetis, rods, aliens, which gives us a registry of black miracles.
Now the question is: why are we skeptic of that? Yes, because we have strong vestiges of modernity. If we were fully human of the postmodern (and we soon will be, don’t worry), we would have considered all these phenomena are exactly the same as we listen to some clip or perceive information on television. By and large, black wonders of the postmodern coexist with black non-wonders of the postmodern, that is, they are balanced among themselves. For example, the performance of some Russian policy is also the black miracle. You take a closer look, what they’re talking about. If we postmodernist to him belong, we realize that all of his speech is ridiculous, in fact, no less than speech johnny meow meow or Katya LEL.
Yet the distinction between miracles and non-miracles of postmodernism there is. We say to ourselves: here is the transfer about and here we are “loaded”, it’s “unbelievable”, at 15.00 we will talk about psychics and UFOs, but this transfer is “about politics”. In the postmodern miracles and non-miracles mixed together. Postmodern is the proliferation of black miracles in the sense that a program about Bigfoot and a report from the state Duma we have to capture in one breath, it is, in principle, one and the same. Not that it’s bad or crazy, not what is good or meaningful, but it all belongs to the space of black miracles. Zhirinovsky in this respect belongs to the transition stage: it’s (still) semi-politician, but (already) semi-Bigfoot.
The range of reality, which in modernity has been deleted (not yet invented or just missing), now comes to us, so if after some time your flat call of the Yeti, this is not surprising, it also belongs to our world, as a collector of signatures or advertising agent for Coca-Cola, it has all the same ontological Foundation in our postrealism, the reality of the postmodern.
May ask where you can see these snow people? Who has seen aliens? However, just as it was in ancient times, when people saw the fauns, not everyone saw them, but everyone knew what they are and without them anywhere, and in the modern era, when all, apparently, have seen molecules and atoms, and, in fact, they too had not seen, but again, knew that without them nowhere, and now, just as these bastards exist in our space, because that really is — is the question of the ontological paradigm not a question of experience. The ontology also determined by the distribution of subject-object roles and their communication or epistemological correspondences, derived from the paradigm.
Interesting not Bigfoot, it is interesting that the paradigm of postmodernism he is or “post-est”… Black miracles is the absolute reality of the postmodern. But we must make allowances for the fact that the postmodern in a certain way “post-est”…
Part 2. Podprostranstva
Environment black miracles
Interesting to see now how the representation of space in the framework of the paradigms that we have discussed.
In order to be black wonders should have some quite specific environment. It is clear that Bigfoot in the world of modernity does not occur. No such scenery, there is no such land, no such mountains where it is found. It is found in the mountains or in the spaces of postmodernism, it is necessary to understand. Accordingly, the postmodern must be qualitatively and substantially different than those spaces that we used to know.
Here we put forward the thesis: black miracles are implemented podprostranstve (we have already said, that calling any of the phenomena of postmodernism, it is necessary to add the prefix “post” because nothing of what we define or what we’re dealing with, can not be called old names — every thing, moving from modernity to postmodernity, qualitatively changing its nature). In this way, by the way, ought to act — what to do careful researchers, and in consideration of the traditional world. In premodern too, things were very different and significantly changed its content, its nature, its quality, its existence, once in the paradigm of modernity. In the postmodern takes the next step of this “transubstantiation”, turning things into something else. Although, to be more precise, not things into something else, and paradigmal understood things in paradigmal understood differently thing.
The space in the premodern: Holos
What is the space in the premodern? This space is holistic (from the Greek. öλος — that is, integer). This – space, turning into joy. This space is fun and frenzied, that is ecstatic. It goes out of itself. No one thing is not in place. In every thing, in every subject, in every point of space contains the entrance into something else. This over-saturation, multi-dimensional nature of each point determine energy elasticity space of the traditional world. This space alive. It did not have anything that is not endowed with a sign of vitality: there live earth, live sky, live winds, real people, living dead, there is in principle no that would be completely alone or in a self-contained stillness that would just be what it is. In premodern ever present power saturation where we are, what surrounds us, — the richness of something else. This is a frenzied space.
In such worlds, such Beatitude the state of enlightenment became a Catholic mystic. They said that I fell after the prayer and saw the splendid garden… Experience is surprisingly poignant magic cloth intoxicating presence, stretched around a person — a feeling that is at the highest peak of enlightenment was through the mystical contemplatives, for a normal representative of the traditional society in the archaic era was the norm, household agricultural norm.
Klyuev beautifully describes the sanctity of the Russian public, the sacredness of the Russian stove, Russian CSD and the Russian snowdrifts. There was the sacred mosquitoes, sacred boots sacred samovars. Even items imported from the city — some bolts that were unpleasant Klyuev, still have gained some additional fundamentally mysterious value.
But as said in “Song of the great mother” describes the expulsion of the spirit of modernity (the West) from imported from England the cloth before it was sewn children’s coat:
“Whispered in reply boots:
“You brought the fishermen
And was the name of England cloth
Opole you became a coat!
Replaced the carpet on the eggs,
The top substrate-sister,
And aunty Anna cut
Demolished under the chicken shed
That the loops of the ” new Opel,
Where the spirit of the unbaptized was sitting.
Then I turned into you
The little ark with the relics, loving,
Cross tied the braid
Povijesti overseas darkness
Inconsolable and seven weeks
The casket was your cradle,
While cypress and thyme
To the guest that the sea cloth,
Do not shed myrrh buckets,
That was not his coat without a soul!”
“His coat without a soul”, that is imbued with “foreign darkness” — is a thing of the paradigm of modernity, and before Russian sacralise the man uses it, he must first transfer it to a pre-modern paradigm – i.e., to sanctify. In this passage, how did the Olonets believers.
Solar topography Tradition
Fun frenetic space, space Galitskoe had quite different qualities than Newtonian space. It is closed in the bowl.
This space has never been small or large, was not large or small cities has not been lost villages, it was not lonely farms, we had no idea of the capital and the periphery, province, the desert. The space in the world, the Tradition actually began and ended, in accordance with a different logic, it was closed, spherical. Went people, for example, in the neighboring village. He walked, walked and at some point noticed that is seems to be the wall, then across the sky, the milky Way, then returns back to the village.
In the traditional world, everything is moving in a circle there prevailed the solar topography. The sun, the stars, the gods, spirits, people, animals — they all went in a circle, and it didn’t matter where to move. Wherever people went, he came approximately to the same great expanse, as if anywhere he went. Space could open up your content to tell about yourself and about the other story, if people just stopped and stared at the wobbling blade of grass in the spring breeze. The whole gamut of what is happening at this moment on a small narrow stalk was for him a tremendous comprehension of meaning, comparable in content, for example, around the world.
This space had no boundaries, had no clear limit, it is isomorphic, according to him, people could walk up heads and down heads as the antipodes, was able to walk vertically. Live, dead, dogs, blades of grass, stars, gods, demons — all of it whirled in a single, indivisible spatial ensemble. And people osmislili is the existence of so – openly and dreading.
It was very interesting Tradition. But not only because there was something unexpected. There’s just the normal things special. For example, the daily handling of utensils, milking cows or feeding pigs was on its content and saturation of the whole detective story. For example, ran over a pig is not caught, fell, stretched out. A dynamic, whole life.
Space has always been symbolically lined, codified. For example, he knew that beyond the river is a village of, say, Small Hari and the Hari. It was very clear that going to such a big capital city you will find, and better not to go there — there are some ravines, and marshes. But, nevertheless, this notion of a strictly defined space was always full of extra items. Later we will understand that these additional elements, we find a clear orientation — right-left, North-South, East-West and top-bottom, village-city — exactly these failures of coordinates, a curvature of the trails just made the space sacred.
The great sacred twig vs renovation
Once, doing protohieriei Herman Wirth, I wondered about the origin of the most elementary character, pervasively, if you will. And I came to the conclusion that it must be some small indirect line — twig or branch — shows the deepest and most archaic form of the sacred. Not accidentally, the grandmother-the witches do on bitches special charms, which are said to cure even hopeless cases. They are the speck ground, then spritz, spit on it, rubbed it, and it passes.
The idea of bitch, errors, slivers, roughnesses, inaccuracies, availability unforeseen circumstances, which is not anticipated, recognized traditional everywhere. Traditional people, traditional society in the space of love background, love not the road itself, and in its curvature and a puddle in the middle of it. Even a simple cigarette butt thrown is not appropriate, may perform the function of improving the landscape to its sacred integrity.
The nesakralnaya, nihilists space is clean tidy renovation, where some straight lines, the complete absence of stains, warps walls, etc Renovation — the result of tremendous work of desacralization halitschke space. So the person who is closer to the traditional society, when he enters a room where disorder reigns, covers a more friendly feeling than if he walked in the room with perfect order, because in disorder, in deviation from the norm fumbling life flawlessly and accurately grasp the archaic layers of attention. And life, actually, it is, she’s rough, she escapes, she curve, she looks like a bitch or a breeze, something that in principle is not expected. And sacred space is that it is closed, goofy and fun, it’s frenzied.
Coordinates of ecstasy
Pre-modern space has an ecstatic structure. Of course, this sacred space has a North and South, there are right and left, are sunrise and sunset, there is a top and bottom, it’s all there, but in all of this reveals an element of uncertainty. For example, going North, you can go to the South or going down to the grave, you can go to heaven or not going anywhere, and just performing certain kind of operations on the stove (scratching, for example), you can make a real journey to those worlds which are really informative, interesting and meaningful.
In other words, sacred space is an orientation, it is not pure chaos. It is, of course, not that much anyhow go, definitely somewhere to come is not the “Russian route” — at sacred space have a characteristic structure, but this structure is approximate.
I recently presented a picture which, probably, somewhere will publish as illustrations of the “Russian Stuff” and “Russian route”. The essence of this painting is, axis x and axis y located on it is not right, as we were taught, and the crooked and still move all the time, like the branches of a tree blows in the wind… That’s the kind of axis, live branches, and was fundamental plans-maps of sacred space, living space. It is marked, but this razmernosti strange, to grasp its logic is very difficult, this kind of dreamlike razmernosti, which, however, integrated. She leads the man to the wholeness that begins to open is everywhere. And if understand correctly this is a traditional space, the space of the pre-modern paradigm, it really will be a heavenly space. Of the many sacred centres and said: “it is heaven on earth,” “this is heavenly country,” “this is an unearthly land”… Therefore, from the viewpoint of sacred geography, Russia is a space of Holy Russia. In fact, she now is — is here to touch the tree, to the beaver, to the water, as soon as you from somewhere pierces the lightning, which will lead us directly to the existence of everything, not just to being a beaver private, private, or birch Creek, and to the existence of all.
The space of modernity
Naturally, such a space, as in the premodern, modernity was not in sight. What is the space of modernity? Genetically it comes from a pre-modern space, but is its negation. The space of the modernist structure is not ecstatic. This space is dead space, which is not breathing. It’s not a space-body, not a space creature, and the space-movement.
The space of the Tradition dies, and from this death is born in the space of modernity. In the transition to the paradigm of the space of modernity is the straightening of real wood, the spiral axes. In modernity space begin hard to describe, translating thus white spots of hope in the black blots of skepticism.
Notice what are the feelings of most epic travelers of modernity described, for example, by Kipling. Take his description of India. The bearer of white culture goes through the endless trash, where you are millions of dirty filthy idiots and tinkering in his shit. And he goes, looks and thinks: what all vanity… In a pile of debris sits there gnawing the bone of some Shiva. On the sacred river Ganges flowing excrement and charred corpses. Around pierced with needles, safety pins and garbage hungry naked men with beards, endless thickets of stinking, festering, oozing moisture malarial disgusting green jungles, insects and swamps. About the only one of malaria how many pages…
The geography of disappointment: space vanity
Reading about travel from the authors of modernity, we learn how pirates or sailors ate stale biscuits or poisoned rat, fell ill with cholera, and when all deceit thrown to the island of cannibals, all the inglorious dead. A great illustration of this – among many others – the film of Werner Herzog’s “Aguirre – the Wrath of God on the Latin American conquistadors.
In the space of an epoch of great geographical discoveries of modern man detects vanity. It – dead space. Yes, it is described henceforth, scrupulously, accurately and in detail, the mountain of cards piled on top of each other. But it is the anatomy of a corpse. The space from the living becomes dead. Yes, studied it, accurately described the length of the intestine, described how his heart beat. But thanks to this anatomy of space to live became there is nothing. Those white spots that remained, in fact, were parts of the Tradition, until they were finished, not too overpowering.
In the geography of modernity is witchcraft in the world, a désenchantement geography, the geography of loss of fascination, this time fascinated by geography. We know from her what exactly the latitude of one or the other flows the river, where one or the other mountain, but we don’t know anything about the life of these objects. In fact the space was the fact that the subject of colonization, even if the space next to your own house. This attitude to space as to what subject of colonization, even extends to its own garden, so that people modern he’s so neat. Why do you think the Germans in Europe, everything is so neat, and we, Russian, it Vaccinium? They just colonize their own gardens. For us it is absolutely incomprehensible thing. They are thorough with killing and disposal, rationalization and museumification of everything that belongs to them — including trees, herbs, vegetables. They make their living sacred things into dead objects.
The geography of modernity is a space entirely transformed into a Museum. Not only the ruins of some temples, or the ruins of some ancient settlements, but even just the road or the interchange at highway modern Europe represent fragments of the Museum.
To the postmodern – a descriptive take
At the crossroads of modernity and postmodernity arises provocative desire to identify the description space by space, to equalize between the space and its descriptive take. Descriptive take of the space is completely accurate map of where severely delayed meters, centimeters, millimeters, from one mountain to another, from village to village, from the river to the river, from border to border.
Demarcation of borders has become a fundamental element of this dead, Museum relationship to the space. Before the border between one state and the other was rough, it was a border-strip (3). Cumans came nearer, so the border moved, the Russians pushed Polovtsian ago — the boundary has varied. Border lived. The life of boundaries has been associated with life space: first came the Romans, then the Romans left, and every time, together with the Romans has varied reliefs, landscapes, the territories which the Romans trampled them or they rushed the Gauls, Germans, Slavs and many other great people of the ancient traditional world.
Gradually this living, breathing space has become so rigidly studied, museopicassomalaga that, ultimately, appeared to descriptive take. By and large, does not matter if a person was in the Pamirs or just saw the map of the Pamirs, because, in fact, he can just regurgitate all the relevant (from the point of view of modernity) information that can be collected by the traveler, and even more, just looking at the map of the Pamirs.
This is a descriptive relation to the space, the idea that precise knowledge of the scheme or the Museum twice and is identical with the knowledge of space itself, stay in this space, has led to a very significant phenomenon: there is a spatial double nature, which, in fact, was a rather clumsy first system countless cards. Mapa Mundi, which began to draw in the era of great geographical discoveries, began to consolidate the paradigm of modernity in relation to the space.
Cloning space: the subject and the length of
Gradually from this rather clumsy still, technological models began to move to more advanced simulations, the models of space, eventually to the cloning of space in the virtual performance.
Here began a very important process: along with the space was to clone and virtualisierungs nature. Since the nature and a space for modernism are decoration and are perceived as decoration, hence the dualism of Descartes: sujet et l étendue, that is, the rational subject and the length, which is in front of him, and the rest not. This is a Prime example orthogonalization of the relationship of modernism to the space. Earlier in the premodern, was no such entity, no such étendue (length), but there were many other things very interesting. Only two left now – the rational subject and the length in front of him. All. No nymphs or fauns, no spirits, no dead, no drunken worlds of elusive meaning, followed by chase as a Satyr with the Naiads, nothing. Only the subject and étendue. Surprisingly boring picture.
In such a situation, nature and space are the backdrop, at first they perceived as a decoration, then they are identified with the backdrop, and further raises an interesting point: when the decoration and space, it is the scheme and the reality that this scheme is designed to describe ryadopolozheno be approximately comparable and interchangeable, there is the idea to simulate space. Then we move on to the next space or podprostranstva, i.e., to the postmodern.
First living space has been dried to the level of scenery from the living sheet was created herbarium. And next, we conducted black magic operation on recovery of the scenery. If the first living creature was likened La Mettrie, Descartes and Golbahar to the apparatus, the living was seen as a machine, the machine, is already on the machine and the machine began to perceive it as something alive. Since the animal is equated to the robot, and the robot can be equated to a living being, and hence the proliferation of fantastic stories about the animated cars. Themes animated machines, technological Pygmalionos drama of the postmodern — a typical feature of podprostranstva.
In modern geographical maps recognize some causal structure of space, which is its strict equivalent, except for those with errors, inaccuracies, accidental typos, noise, backgrounds, bouts of illness, which can affect cartographer. He, allegedly, drew, drew, and then something hit his hand. The correction of these errors was created, from the point of view of the cartography of modernity, specific, but an exact copy of the space. And based on this replicas, determine the mechanical system space in the future, the idea arose: if we can operate with an exact copy, virtual space is just as real, if we can take the next step to determine and change the real space, starting from the virtual space. Architecture of modern cities are the offspring of space-based plan. And the guesses about postmodernism arose from architectural critics.
The screen, which is not
Podprostranstva is a space that does not exist in actuality from the point of view of modernity (as long as we’re not talking about whether it’s from the point of view of pre-modern…) But the space that there is in modernity is only one conceptual version, and moreover, the result of some paradigmatic operation over the previous conceptual design (pre-modern space), why don’t we assume that podprostranstva postmodern at some point will become the only and generally accepted. Then the space of modernity, which we consider to be “real”, will be fully equal to the virtual, that is, will be modeled using artificial technologies. Not only in computer games, as is the case now.
The computer game is still very rough layouts… recently appeared new progressive technologies where a small light, the Issuer, the size of a pinhead, beam, acting directly on the lens of the eye, and the person appears before the eyes of the computer screen, which is actually not. Not even worth talking about whether you can or can’t do it technologically; technologically, in the postmodern it is possible to do everything, however you can nothing to do, so as any action or lack thereof has no cause, no effect.
Podprostranstva ignores both the former space and sacred fun, frenetic space pre-modern, dead, clear, no blind spots, Rudyard Kipling’s skeptical the space of modernity. Both cease to exist. Podprostranstva is neither one nor the other, something third.
In this space there are no laws of space pre-modern, that is, the laws of travelling the stars and under the earth — , meaningful journey along with a host of other creatures – funny and frightening companions — not the clear hard cold rational logic of geography the modern world. This podprostranstva absolutely specific, it is proliferation of black miracles. It is not only a condition for the emergence of these black wonders, but is itself one of these black miracles, and maybe most importantly, because this podprostranstva makes the rest of the black miracles are possible.
Space without distances
We give some definitions of podprostranstva. How does it differ from the previous two models? It knows no distances. No – no “prevremenim” Jolly, spiral, or modern — specific, measured, harsh, and sad. There’s just no distance. The journey from new York to Hong Kong as postfuturistika is committed pseudopotential plane, which is a network element. This is reminiscent flow of information over Internet cable, where the airport is a terminal or a server. The space turned into a kind of virtual diagram.
The man who lives in modern new York, may, in principle, not knowing that he is behind the right corner of the house, he won’t have to visit the most adjacent areas of the garden or courtyard. For him there can be unexpected being, he may be afraid of someone in the corner of your own apartment, but, nevertheless, quietly to travel the world and feel in Hong Kong, tel Aviv or Moscow completely at home.
This space is, by and large, there is a space without distance or with such bizarre distances, where visiting your own kitchen can be fraught with adventure, perhaps a nightmare. This is based on many scenarios in horror movies, when a person is scared of the unknown, not a trip somewhere in an exotic place, and something begins to happen at his house. Stephen king lot of such stories: the fear of toilets, sinks, pipes, batteries, which are connected with more and more terrifying visions and suspicions and at the same time free movement around the world — Rio de Janeiro, aircraft, terminals, business case, and a man comes to himself, and seized with wild terror of the unknown that’s going on behind the tile…
People Traditions, of course, knew the house well, knew his sheep, and in any case their would be a pig with a stranger is not confused, weed all knew one of them, even birds and mosquitoes was recognized as something right: it’s our fly, it’s someone else’s — something that will freeze, not rise. Supersizing… And then people do not even know that he is in the pocket. Put the hand back in horror holding: how it got here!.
In the network space clearly marked terminals, and that between these terminals is, as this would not, and the surprise starts right… Man can perfectly understand the economy of the most distant countries, the Senegalese know the language and at the same time to be intimidated by three walls, running from the neighbors and getting lost in the stairwell.
Nonlocal space and trip
Podprostranstva does not know the locality. Locality is a property of space modern. Podprostranstva, not knowing the locality, somewhat like prepotente, that is premodernists, Galitskoe space. Here also, as in the space of the Tradition, some elements of the space are not rigidly structurally associated with loved ones, but may be associated with distant. This space is a suspicion based on the almost schizophrenic guessing of when does unrelated particles.
The space of the Tradition of nonlocal, and it is connected to but is connected according to the logic of the fundamental myth, whose part it is and where it is constantly reactualized. In the postmodern, all incoherently connected between the logic of a disordered mind. It’s a schizophrenic conspiracy theories, described in narcotic prose of Burroughs, for example, in “Naked Breakfast.” The addict is aware of himself a secret agent involved in a complex and ambiguous world, full of coincidence is not accidental, of unknown risks and dangers. In this world, coming from the metro station in the city you can find yourself in the market of Tunisia and realize that you are there with an important secret mission to expose a conspiracy between the Federal Government and aliens. Drug “trip”, literally “journey” actualizes podprostranstva – immobility or movement of the body in space run parallel to the wanderings of the consciousness of the addict, sometimes met, and then again diverge. The addict is not feeling that “something is wrong”…
In the tradition of too many things begin with the suspicion that “something is wrong”, but in the end, the scenario of the traditional knowledge space necessarily leads to the fundamental discovery that it still was what it all was (telos, we were talking about). But the space of the postmodern suspicion based on intuitive, but painful schizophrenic relationship of disparate elements and disparate random bursts of this space, nowhere and leads nowhere, it lasts and lasts only a burden greater and greater number of nodes on the neck. Since this space is not ordered with myth.
A typical example of travel podprostranstva is internautica. It is walking, swimming on the Internet, when people poke on random links randomly between exchange rate, weather, porn site or thrash sensation, and all these things, not connected in any way, to contact, however, the chaotic existence of the user or the arbitrariness of search engines. They are connected randomly, they are connected pointless, their relationship or not reports and nothing shows. Man, getting up from the computer after this session, does not become richer intellectually, he can’t even tell what he was doing: on the one hand, I’m ashamed to say that, on the other — even want to — I will not say…
All these elements are internautica “next”, they are absolutely non-local, the process of moving attention from one banner to another, from one reference to another creates a feeling that these things are close by. It really is a new schizophrenic structure of space, where the porn site, the news that Michael Jackson nose fell off and political news election of the President there is some absolutely clear communication… What? The man who pokes at the buttons, moving back and forth on the Internet, does not think about it, he can’t understand. But such a connection clearly exists. And if he’s day-to-day visits a certain toposes internautica, then he has a stable conjugate, which then begins to beat in the TVC, for example, in the election campaigns of various political figures… Gradually, these images merge, and there’s a new topography, and people gradually begin to navigate this complex and meaningless combination of nonlocality, based on random twists dope, assumes the character of a totalitarian fashion. In blogs, for example, Live Journal, this is turning into a systematic normative sample.
Next quality: the postmodern knows no bounds. This space One World, one World. This space is not territorial, it network, and this is perhaps the most important thing.
Network principle is that the chaotic objects of attention located in podprostranstve everywhere and same time nowhere… Moreover, what attracts our attention, has the allotted space. Attention is the projection from the space conversely, we are attracted to space, only that somehow affects our attention. Accordingly, we do not know the structure of the space, but playing an endless game of atomized topos, which we distinguish, grasp, throw, and then again new, and again we take them and then throw… But the topos of this podprostranstva, in turn, begin to play with us, periodically turning on (artificially or naturally) any contemplate the phenomenon that we in the trap our attention, in a kind of vampiric hole that wants to grab us at least a little, “stop, look!”, “look at that!” “and this you saw?!”, “understand? I do not understand — then see!”.
Advertising as an absolute utopia
Located toposes attention in such a way that they lead nowhere, but our attention is constantly captured, it is a great work of advertising. Only very archaic (postmodernistskaya) people buy “the powder”, which is “here we come”, Tide. A normal person postmodern “Tide” does not buy, because it erases everything you need already fact of its contemplation. It has long been understood, and “Tide,” his other relationship, post-relationship. He begins to suspect that maybe such a powder does not exist, it anywhere do not sell, but the fact that this person constantly goes from screen to screen, from one apartment to another, aggressively imposing something that is basic network pulse podprostranstva, one of those which is today all life. People look wherever he goes, who he will reveal whether or not the next housewife curlers… shaggy energy, coming to break that charges from the mains. It turns into energy advertising quest, and forget about the Laundry, about everything, go dirty, dirty, Tide with their priests emit sharp beams, from which there’s nowhere to hide — our attention is grabbed, subdued. Briefly – for a moment… But in the postmodern all at the moment, including ourselves. People of the postmodern era – instant.
At a certain stage, the introduction of postmodernism is lost economic background of the proliferation of images of podprostranstva. Advertising starts advertising advertising: “Watch this week” is a great poster, you look at him, then I think: “What should I see?” And in the end you see: “Look this week — this place will be the announcement that we will have to watch next week”… Thus, there is not just a topos, and pictures that do not depict faces that tell us anything about their owners.
The postmodern is a utopia in the etymological sense. Utopia is something that is not what has no place (u-topos: u — not, topos — “place” in Greek). This is no place.
Premodern: ecstatic khoros
Should take a closer look at two of the term: topos and khoros. Horos is the Greek word that means “place”, “space”, but also means “movement” and “interval”, that is, the location containing errors, distinctions, structures , etc. there are many very different shades. This Association of the different items in the same space and at the same time, saturation, loading, and full. Khoros-it is a non-empty space. It is a town with houses, chickens, trees, wells, sheep, it’s all together and at the same time, however, that between bird, a well, a bucket, a broom, a pig. Interval is necessarily included in the notion of the khoros.
Premodern operates exactly with khoros, this is sacred space. And then, even a small country, even a small village becomes the Empire, and the Empire is a huge, stretched over continents village. Big and small are canceled due to the qualitative richness of horos, because if we look then at each point on the horos we can find a huge amount of information, as well as traveling over the vast expanses of the Empire.
Ecstatic khoros is a pre — modern space.
Modern: a skeptical topos
Khoros is replaced in the paradigm of the modern conception of topos, of place. Topos — the same Greek word, but it means “a place just like this, not necessarily filled with something. This is a place that something can contain, and does not contain. On the concept of a topos was built a modern model of representation about space.
Under the khoros can understand what was called “natural places” of Aristotle, which Galileo Galilei and the other creators of the paradigm of the modern world fundamentally fought. Khoros is a place with its contents, quality space that is always already something there – for example, that only there will be(but possible). From the point of view of our understanding of Traditions that have this quality space? It is a joy. It is a space full of joy that it breaks, it’s ecstatic explosion of inner dignity and happiness, which is contained in each tiny dot. Even the smallest element of the sacred world — it is always sacred khoros, khoros frantically. From horos was the word “choir” — and as the place where the singing and the singers themselves. And in fact, sings the place.
He was replaced in the paradigm of modernity comes topos. Topos — empted horos, horos, who drove out the singing. In the spaces of the image we see only individual selected elements, separated from each other, but still having a certain hierarchical structure, although not rigidly attached to the place. Of the attention of the topos fall intervals.
For example, there is a topos of the factory. Factory is a topos and, another topos, for example, a Park near the work area where work on Sundays or in the small gap between sleep and work out to drink and walk. Both topos have different structures. One is a dry and sober for work the other for cheerless idleness. Machines factory and benches and alleys of the Park are strictly delineated and ordered. Sacredness can get there only if you drink working properly (at the factory or at the weekend), and before his eyes everything will float. Then he will hear the music objects, but most likely, it will be more like a hellish cacophony of Stockhausen or industrial, not the music of the spheres.
Gradually, the strict hierarchy, lined and lifeless topos of modernity is dissolved and eroded, and there is a special phenomenon: not ecstatic khoros (already done) and not once-enchanted skeptical topos, also finished, there is a kind of hybrid of ecstatic topos. This ecstatic topos and is the basis of the structure of the space of the postmodern or podprostranstva.
Podprostranstva consists of a disordered conglomerate of the topos of ecstatic. This place ecstatics ephemeral, not permanent, but transient. For example, the subway announcement: want to fall in love — call 555-66-77… This ad belongs to an ecstatic topos. The postmodern person has no strength to fall in love, it does not in itself falls in love, he has nothing left in his heart, he is already completely exhausted modernity, he has no emotions, no natural. It would seem that natural love, but no, there it was. A skeptical topos of modernity, including psychoanalysis and the proliferation of pornography, spell, and Eros. And here mechanics and operators postmodern invited to artificially recreate the lost, provoke dentures the most basic (but became unavailable) movements of the soul — I invite you to call and fall in love.
It’s a blatant simulation of natural attraction, which completely dries up in the unisex postmodern. Desire, which in modernity was still there (as the main threat to capitalism, according to poststructuralists), the postmodern is already divided into separate ecstatic toposes — such as Spa, massage, metro, sexologist, doggy, girlfriend, McDonald’s. These individual elements, each of which is not associated with anything else, quantuum, divide into portions the quality of human desire, not so much causing it as a substitute. In fact in that ad that I want to fall in love — call 555-66-77 — contains not just offer some dubious erotic services. This proposal is the desire to go back there you want, go there — there you got something stir, call down there — you, cool dog, though anything but knock. This is the action of ecstatic topos. It’s not just about entertainment or the realization of desires, the man of the postmodern no desires. This is not just a fragment of the extent (étendue) designed for “leisure activities”. Ecstatic topos is the ambivalent subject-object reality that contains the Ghost of desire in itself. Don’t we go there, he goes to us and helps us to love.” Being in this topos, we “fall in love”, but it instantly dissolves, and we suck – up to the meeting with the following topos, the following announcement – “go buy yourself a sandwich, because you want it””. New topos helps us to feel hunger. This topos, where both lives and hunger and satisfaction.
The ecstatic sense of topos, for example, in the form of communication via mobile phone — is the fact of communication. Who calls who, if both ends of the tube grunt and giggle, do not understand and do not matter. What’s the difference — you called or called you, were you there or not there. By the way, often people make mistakes with the room, continue to talk as if nothing had happened, as subject of reality, individuality is already erased in the postmodern. Therefore, it does not matter where I called. Where call — back and call.
Retreat: the New University as khoros
I have the impression that the best of our supporters came to us just by mistake. They either offered to the spirits or tea, toli brought the parcel, but opened the wrong door, toli just passing by and was intrigued, but all were in the New University, and so it remained. Peter the great in Moscow University together with the first professors from Germany were imported from the same place and students – otherwise, no one would listen. New University, on its part, distributes and institutionalized and knowledge, and its recipients – fulfilling in the spirit of postmodernism as a kind of ecstatic topos. However, we teach fun science and often after lectures and during them sing, play, dance and rejoice… So it’s closer to the horos… especially in some cases, several teachers lecturing at the same time before the same audience – as we, along with Golovin, Jemal and Mamleeva one of the sessions. Clean horos…
Black miracle “McDonald’s”
Itineraries of postmodernism consist of ecstatically attractive elements. As Baudrillard said, today is not people who take pictures of objects, but the objects make people photograph them. It is the property of a topos of ecstatic. This element of the surrounding space, which causes in us the sudden motion of something that we still have. The Church of this ecstatic topos is “McDonald’s”. This postpartum ecstatic topos. McDonald’s note, he is happy, and for a very short period of time. It pleases, amuses, entertains and not understand anything — the food there is tasteless, no content in the “McDonald’s” is not present, the vitamins, too, but, nevertheless, it is postmodernist utopia, a place that does not exist. And it sits a clown, showing that this place is ironic, a mockery of the idea of the restaurant, food, food, this pseudo-food, where people come, do not understand why, and so there is some kind of miracle… “McDonalds” — this is also an example of black miracles, because neither the cause nor the purpose is present.
The breakdown of hierarchies topos
In the postmodern space is completely jumbled. No longer can we share, where is the place for labor, and where the place where the office is, and where the restaurant is where the factory is, and where the resort hierarchy is destroyed. Everything is imbued with the ephemeral sparks of ekstatichnost, which erupts into a lifeless space and then disappears. In the office the clerk writes in blogs, laughs and climbs on porn sites, and with the resort for hours talking on a cell with work colleagues, learning the latest news and worrying about the results.
This so-called network ecstatica or the triumph of the gaming relationship to the world. In fact, people at work and in the restaurant and even at home constantly playing. Please note that our teenagers no longer just imitate the characters in the stories and epics. The impression is that they are all the time even in offline press the buttons — Upload, Reload, click on links, move the arrows. And how quickly they — unlike people of older or aged — master the computer, already five years old modern child easily does with a computer what previously studied in institutions in the fifth year… And they are five years without any problems… the Computer itself belongs to the topos of postmodernism.
Ecstatic topos and drugs slice
Naturally, the topos of postmodern clearer, just different drugs. Moreover, the postmodern has its own drugs. If late modern, especially in the period of decadence tended to morphine, which at the very least, but were introduced in a kind of reality, albeit not until the end, as a rule, could not be studied — it is not enough health, people quickly came to naught, but, nevertheless, any promises of the end of the path contained in the very structure of an opiate. But the ecstasy was nothing there. It really just ephemeral quantum senseless and causeless euphoria. Or take LSD. LSD is a myth. From LSD, of course, is the script finished and geography peculiar quasistereo the world. Was a hippie, you might say, a kind of “lost” traditionalists”. But modern drugs such as ecstasy or metadol is drugs slicewho kicked the man out of the space, technical, boring and mediocre in a space no. To boot, ecstasy is the same as to go to McDonald’s or watch ads. It is nowhere and nowhere is calling, does not, does not change the human structure. This is the topos of ecstatic new drugs, drugs of postmodernism. Taking these drugs, a person thinks that he “fell into place”, although in fact he has parted with whatsoever place or any point of space, even with nostalgia on it.
Man is erased, and the ephemeral topos narcotic momentary current lives instead, to what it is not linking to anything not encouraging and not pushing.
The Radical Promise Of The Subject
We are in the course of a Radical Subject, we come from afar, and in this lecture, as in the first, I’m Radical about the Subject will not speak. But what we can announce ahead of the next of our meetings?
The radical Subject is a phenomenon that we should investigate in the framework of the postmodern. However, the phenomenon itself is associated not so much with the postmodern, and with its end (Infinite End). But to speak of the Radical Subject, not previously studied the specificity of the postmodern and of its bostoncollege impossible. Not understanding, not vizualizarea podprostranstva black miracles, we just never realize that this Radical Subject, because we will knock the will or inertia to consider this category under any one of the preceding paradigmatic, epistemological, ontological and philosophical structures.
It’s the only thing I can say. As in the series: stay tuned, read on and learn all about the Radical Subject. I promise I’ll tell you everything, but not now. Until this introduction, though advanced. We are getting closer and closer to the subject, but first it is essential to understand the condition of postmodernity, to understand the radical paradigm shift compared to previous systems of language, perception, communication, and philosophy.
People today, primarily the Russian people, who I was most interested in, should fundamentally reconsider. We are not the first, many times we have all watched, we have a “tradition” of revision, but, nevertheless, it requires this time, I think, the particular daring, special prowess. Modern, indeed, over. It is necessary to realize. What we often impose on “postmodernism” and “postmodern” is a pathetic babble. And so we now need to understand what a true postmodern. Without this we will not understand neither what is happening around or what is happening within ourselves. Postmodern – this is serious, and pretend that nothing happened is stupid. Exploring the postmodern, we will increasingly understand and the New Metaphysics, which, paradoxically, can only be detected in the most critical points of the cycle. And anything critical of postmodernism it is impossible to imagine.
The answers to the questions
Question: What is your analysis different from that described by Baudrillard in “Terror is no deterministic code?
Dugin is Fundamentally no different. Baudrillard describes the same phenomenon I’m talking about, maybe a little on the other side. Baudrillard is one of those who actually says sensible things about postmodernism that can be used as relevant evidence.
Question: do You think that forcing Abramovich to pay tax on subsoil is black a miracle?
Dugin: Yes… Right. Exactly. It’s not possible.
Question: What to do with the dystopia of postmodernism, with this black miracle? Isn’t this podprostranstva just a prelude to the Finis Mundi, the end of the world?
Dugin: of Course it is. I never used such comparisons obviously to stay within the framework of philosophical discourse, but the postmodern is the era of the Antichrist in the developed her condition, obviously.
Question: What creates a paradigm or how they are formed?
Dugin: That’s a good question. Indeed, paradigms are not created by anyone, is a kind of absolute thing that distributes the role and qualitative content of being, the subject, space. That is, a paradigm is more than, say, thinking, ideology, religion. Paradigms exist by themselves, and about the nature they can build any hypothesis, because they are deeper than hypotheses.
At the time, in my opinion, Deleuze wrote: most of the authors I’m interested to explore, because I go behind them, they are then set out, but Nietzsche did not work, because no matter how I went, whatever the work may be read — he is back. That paradigm is what is always behind. Always. Paradigm nobody creates, it creates it all.
Question: what is the relationship between your understanding of predestination, the idea and the fishing?
Dugin: I would not share these things. In principle, God’s Providence refers rather to the purpose. For Fisheries it is important that something happened, not what to create for this reason, it will occur even if the reason will not, so the Fishing is often great, and fate, fate, Ananke, fate can be viewed as determinism, that is, causal determinism, and how goal setting – depending on the context.
Question: Being what paradigm are you traditional? Where is a deep dive into the problems of postmodernity? Or you are watching from the side, while over all the paradigms, or something else?
The question whether black miracles with some global changes in the space-time continuum?
Dugin: I was talking about. Of course, linked. Yes, the space-time continuum of the postmodern, where there are black miracles that happen to us will happen, believe me, is really that the space-time continuum, and sometimes twice, sometimes in relation to the khoros ecstatic to extatically modernistic topos.
Question: whether it is Necessary to repair the road? Does it matter what to animate and to comprehend: cart, road or plane?
Dugin: we need a poetry question… I honestly don’t quite understand… to Animate… You know, within the paradigm of pre-modern no carts inanimate and the inanimate plane, just no, and you can’t “animate”, this is not an artificial action, which is what you and I have. In the paradigm of pre-modern wagon is alive, she breathes, cries, grunts, the stove goes, pike talking. Not something that someone invented, that was indeed the case. Then, when it comes to Galileo Galilei, all silent, the stove no longer go, pike numb, cart stalls… And now — what really to say…
Question: Aleksandr gelevich, I have an idea of a traditionalist project, but no financial and creative potential.
Dugin: It is witty… Everything. Thank you.
(1) See A. G. Dugin “Metaphysics of the Good News”, “Conspiracy theories”, “Philosophy of traditionalism”, “Philosophy”, etc.
(2) a More detailed and extended answer to this fundamental question is given in the book by A. G. Dugin, “Polylobate and partly in subsequent chapters.
(3) for More details, see A. G. Dugin “foundations of geopolitics” and “Russian thing” section “Sunny dogs Russia”