The Kurds: the rustling wings of the angel-Peacock
(Chapter from the book “Naumachia. Logo Of Turan. Indo-European ideology vertical”)
Kurdish ethnic groups and tribes
Another Indo-European people since some time began to play an important role in space, including Eastern Anatolia, Northern Mesopotamia and North-West of Iran – the area that previously were settled peoples, the Hurrians, has shifted later to the North in the region of the Caucasus. We are talking about the Kurds.
Likely, the Kurds were the descendants of the Medes, a nomadic Iranian tribes who came at the end of II – early I Millennium on the North-West territory of modern Iran, where he founded a state called a mussel. In the VII century BC they created a vast Empire composed of many peoples, territories and languages. But the core of the Medes remained on the same territories that were their pole expansions, where was located their capital of Ecbatana (modern Iranian city of Hamadan).Direct descendants of the Medes were the Kurds, and Caucasian peoples of the Talysh and the tats (which are to be strictly separated from the mountain Jews).
Because the Kurds lived in the territory of the ancient Hurrians and the Urartu people, who in turn were assimilated by Armenians, as well as Kartvelians, we can assume in their ethnogenesis and Hurrian component. However, in the North-West of Iran in Zagros mountains from ancient times lived plenumi Galiev (Tocharians), the kassites and lullabies, which, as we have seen, some historians believe the Indo-Europeans. They could also participate in the ethnogenesis of the Medes and the Kurds.The ancient name of the Kurds was “curtii”, Greek Κύρτιοι, and mention of them as the people inhabiting the region Atropatene (Azerbaijan) and Northern Mesopotamia, preserved in the ancient sources.
In the Persian Chronicles the term “kurt” (kwrt) called nomadic Iranian tribes living in North-Western Iran that can be attributed to the Kurds of a typology of societies in Turan.
Among the Kurds it is possible to distinguish several groups:
· Northern Kurds, which now form the basis of the Kurdish people – Kurmanji (kurmancî), the name kur — mancî is interpreted as “son of the people of the Medes”;
· the southern part of the Kurdish Kurmanji called the Iranian ethnonym Sorani;
· a separate group are the Kurds , Zaza, call themselves dımli, dimly, and are descendants of the North Iranian people that once lived in the area Dilma in the South of the Caspian sea (these people were called “Caspians”);
· the same origin, the Kurdish people Hourani, also once inhabited the area Dilama, but later migrated to the South than the Kurdish-Zaza;
· the South are the Kurds , kelhuri, as well as neighboring tribes Faile, aka Zarine and varnishes,
· previously, the Kurds rank as the people of lerovliving in the South-West of Iran, which today is usually attributed to the Iranians.
There is also a hypothesis about the relationship between the Kurds and the people of the Baloch people.
The Kurds unlike other Iranian peoples longer than the others maintained a nomadic lifestyle, which, combined with dwelling in the mountainous terrain allowed them to keep intact many archaic features, which continues a continuous link with the culture of Turan.
Today the Kurds are a large people (more than 40 000 000), who resides on the territory of four countries – Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Iran, but does not have its own statehood. It is also an indicator of the preservation of the Kurds ‘ traditional society affected by modernization much lesser extent than those of the peoples among which the Kurds live.However, the processes of modernization make it to them, created in the last century “Kurdish problem”, that is, raised the question of the creation of a separate Kurdish state, as a political Modernist does not think people outside the state, that is, the political nation.
Mussel and medieval Kurdish polity
In the traditions of the Kurds there is an idea about their links with Noev the ark. Because the Kurds lived in the areas adjacent to mount Ararat, they consider themselves the direct descendants of the inhabitants of the village located at the foot of which he founded, Noah descended into the valley after the Flood. The same legend about the native and original presence in the areas between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea in the area of mount Ararat, we meet the other Caucasian peoples, in particular the Armenians, Georgians and Chechens, who — each in their ethno-centric logic — I find this a number of symbolic evidence.The Kurds in the twentieth century base their descent from the Urartu people and the Hurrians, which, however, generally true for Armenians, and for Kartvelians, and the Vainakh, the ethnogenesis of which – though in varying degrees – are Hurrian peoples. However, the actual Kurdish identity isTuran (nomadic Indo-European tribes) and more specifically of the Medes, that is, Iranian.
If you take a direct genetic relationship of the Kurds to the Medes, they can be considered as carriers of the ancient state traditions, previous Persia and claimed after the joint with neo-Babylon Chaldeans take Assyrian continuity of a World Empire. But in subsequent epochs, starting with the Achaemenids, Iran was in the hands of the Persians, who inhabited the southern territory of Iran, and the lands of media, together with Armenia and other territories was the only Iranian provinces.
In a certain period after the death of Alexander the Great – the head of Iran stand also nomadic (Turanian) tribes Parnov, who founded the Parthian dynasty, but the cultural basis still remain, it is Persian tradition that becomes even more pronounced in the Sassanid era. However, there is shared by many historians theory of the relationship between the Parthians and the Kurds, because they both have inhabited the Northern territory of Iran and belonged to a nomadic Indo-European peoples.Later, the peoples of Northern Iran and Atropatene (Azerbaijan) are on the periphery and in the era of the next wave of Iranian statehood emanating from the North under the Safavids, the political elite are iranizirovannye Turks (Shia qyzylbashs). Kurds in this process the big role do not play.
Historically the Kurds as the descendants of the Medes were Zoroastrian, and the Sasanian Zoroastrian religion of Iran was a tradition for them.
From the I century ad among the Kurds begins preaching Christianity. Eusebius reports that among the Medes and the Parthians preached the Apostle Thomas. Since the Kurds-Christians lived in the Eastern regions among them later prevailed Nestorianism, which made them part of the Iranian Church. In Kurdistan, there were many influential centers of the Nestorian religion played an important role in different periods of the center in Erbil, in the XVI century, in Jazira, in the seventeenth century, and the Kurdish city Kujan in the XIX century became a centre of Nestorian diocese. A certain distribution (this time under the influence of the Armenians) were miaphysite.
Starting from the VII century ad, when Iran was invaded by Arabs reached the Caucasus and southern Caspian region, we have seized the whole territory of the historic residence of the Kurds, the Kurds be under the authority of the Arab Caliphate and, accordingly, under Islamic influence. However, first during the Arab conquest of Havana, Tikrit, Mosul, Cizre and southern Armenia, the Kurds, the Arabs had a fierce resistance, and then regularly participated in anti-Arab uprisings. However, gradually the Kurds themselves began to convert to Islam. Among them the most widely Sunni Islam of the Shafi’i madhab that unites them with the Muslims of Dagestan and the North Caucasus as a whole. A small part of the Kurds profess Shi’ism.In the era of the spread of Sufism (IX century), the Kurds willingly accepted his teachings, and Sufism in two main versions – the Naqshbandi and qadiria — became a permanent feature of Kurdish Islam. But the wide spread of Sufism has received only from the XVI century.
In certain periods, the Kurds have created a fairly large scale political education and founded the ruling dynasty. One of these Kurdish dynasties was Shaddadid, created on the territory of Caucasian Albania in the XI — XII centuries an independent state. Shaddadid professed Sunni Islam and have shown themselves to be adherents of Islam in contrast with Christian Georgia and Armenia. In 1072, the dynasty split into two branches: Ganja and Ani. The population in the Ani and Ganja Emirates was predominantly Armenian, and culture – Persian.
Shaddadid ruled until the end of the XII century. Later, the Kurds have recognized the power of the Seljuqs with whom they were allies, and received the right to establish another vassal of education Ani Emirate.
Another Kurdish dynasty was founded in 959 in the province of Jabal leader of the Kurdish tribe Barbican Hasanwayhid Ben Hasan, who overthrew Boogedy.
Another and the most famous among the other dynasty was Marwanid (990 year 1096 in the year). This Kurdish dynasty founded by Abu Ali Ben Marwan Ben Ductac.
You must select a shape major military leader of the XII century Salah ad-DIN (1138 — 1193), which was an ethnic Kurd and belonged to the same tribe, rawadi, a native from was the founder of the dynasty of the state of shaddadids Mohammed Ben Shaddad Map.
Saladin deposed the last ruler of the Shiite Fatimid state, thereby eliminating the Fatimid Caliphate, wrested from the crusaders of the vast territory of the Middle East, including the Holy Land, and became the Sultan of Egypt, Iraq, Hijaz, Syria, Kurdistan, Yemen, Palestine, Libya, and founded a dynasty Abidov, which lasted until 1250. But Salah ad-DIN acts in his exploits on behalf of the Kurds as a community, but on behalf of the Seljuks, in the service of which he was the army which he relied.
However, the very existence of the Kurdish dynasties confirms the classical model Turanian beginning: warlike Indo-European nomads often become founders of dynasties or military-political elite of the settled States.
The area that was inhabited by the Kurds to the XIII century, called by the Arabs “Jebel” (literally, “Highlands”), later it became known as “Kurdistan”. The beginning of the XVI century on the territory of Kurdistan was a small Kurdish principalities or Emirates: Jazeera, Hakari, Image, Hasankeyf, Ardelan (in Iranian Kurdistan), Soran and Baban. Except for them existed, and smaller portions. In addition, since the early middle Ages (from 1236 to 1832) the Kurds-Yezidis there was a small Emirate in Northern Mesopotamia Sheehan.“The ideal state” the Yezidis Yazdian, partly political, administrative, partly religious, included Seihan and Sinjar, as well as the sacred valley Lalish where is the main Shrine of the Yezidis – the tomb of Sheikh ADI, the founder of the Kurdish religion of yezidism.
After the establishment of the Safavid dynasty, the Iranians began to purposefully destroy the independence of the Kurdish principalities. The memory of the heroic resistance of the Kurds remained in the Kurdish legends about the protection of the fortress Dimdim. After the defeat of the Shah at the hands of the Ottomans under Selim I, a large part of Kurdistan was under the rule of the Turks, who were also to abolish the Kurdish Autonomous principalities.
During the Mongol conquests of most of the Kurdish populated territories were under the authority of Halayudha, and after the resistance of the Kurds was suppressed many Kurdish tribes migrated from the plains to the mountain regions, partly repeating the scenario of civilization of the peoples of the Caucasus, with whom the Kurds are in many respects was very close. Some Kurds settled in the Caucasus.
Later the territory of the Kurds in the border area between the Ottoman Turkey and Iranthat painful impact on the rupture of a single cultural horizon and gave the Kurdish Dasein’the tragic dimension. Direct descendants of the great of the Medes, who headed a world Empire, were deprived of political power and torn between two warring Empires, none of which was for the Kurds until the end of his. With the Iranians they were connected with Indo-European origin, ancient Zoroastrian roots and the proximity of the language, and with the Turks is Sunni Islam, and the commonality of the nomadic warlike way of life that made them allies in the era of the Seljuks.
Yezidism and its layers
The majority of Kurds belongs to Sunni Islam, but in all cases the Kurds are acutely aware of their difference from other people, keeping their identity unchanged. This identity represents the Kurdish horizon, which for many centuries was closely connected with the mountains and the mountainous surrounding landscape. Like the Kalash and Nuristani the Kurds have retained many archaic features of Indo-European peoples of Turan until the end and not mixed with either the sedentary Persians (mainly Shiites), nor with the Turks, Sunnis, despite close and prolonged cultural contacts with those and with others.
Most clearly this is expressed Kurdish identity in this heterodox (from the point of view of Islam) phenomenon yezidism, special and unique religious sect, distributed to the Northern branch of the Kurds Kurmandji. The course originated as an offshoot of Sufism in the twelfth century based on the teachings of the Sufi Sheikh ADI Ibn Musafir (1072 – 1162), who arrived in Iraqi Kurdistan from Balbec in Lebanon. Sheikh ADI was familiar with such major figures of Sufism like al-Ghazali and the founder of the tariqa qadiriya Abdul-Qadir al-Gilani.Yezidi believe that Sheikh ADI, whom they revere as the embodiment of divinity, only reformed and updated in accordance with the divine mandate of a more ancient faith, which they call “sharfadin”.
The doctrine of the Yezidis are virtually unexplored due to closure of this religious group, which kept apart not only from other faiths and peoples, but also from the bulk of the Kurds, and very reluctantly reports about the basics of their faith. There is a tradition that the Yezidis are the collections of sacred texts, which the representatives of the higher castes – sheikhs and peers – carefully hidden from the rest. Only two such text is clearly fragmentary and consists of heterogeneous elements — became known and were translated into European languages “Book of Revelation” (Kitab-ol-Gilva) and Black Book (Mashaf-Dec).They were published in English in 1919, and on the Russian exposition of them appeared in 1929. In General, the religion of the Yezidis is still virtually unknown.
In some parts of the religious theology of the Yezidis, the surrounding Nations, especially the Muslims, the impression that the cult of the Yezidis is a worship of Satan (the Christian devil). But, of course, this tradition is more complex, although obviously and significantly different from Islam – even in its Sufi form.
On the origin of religion Yezidis there are several versions that can be viewed not as mutually exclusive, but as corresponding to different layers of this tradition.
The deepest layer is Zoroastrianism manifested in the doctrine of the seven Archangels (Amesha Spenta Mazdaism), and in the worship of fire and sun worship, and even the primary symbol of the Yezidis – the Great Peacock, sometimes represented by just a bird (the Yezidis “Black Book,” it bears the name of a Hangar) — may be a version of the image of the Holy bird of the Zoroastrians Simurg. All the Kurds as a whole (including Yezidis) recognize that before accepting Islam they professed Zoroastrian religion, therefore, the preservation of mountainous Indo-fragments of ancient faith appear to be quite natural.Also close to along the Zoroastrian Holy garments Yezidis – white shirt (Kras) with special embroidered collar (DC Yazid or grivan) and long sacred wool belt (Banna pste), Zoroastrians called “Kusti”.
The name Yezidis erected to the son of the first Caliph of the Umayyads, Yazid I Movie. Yezidi sometimes emphasize that a reformer (or founder) of their teaching Sheikh ADI himself was a descendant of Muawiyah through Yazid. Yazid was the main enemy of Imam Ali and his family and is responsible for the death of Imam Hussein. He is not very popular among Muslims, and the Shiites openly and vehemently hate him. The traces of the historical Yazid Yezidis have almost completely erased, an anti-Shia pathos is missing, and the Yazid or Yazid is considered a heavenly deity (perhaps higher).This is because in the Iranian etymology of the word Yazid or Yazid is interpreted as the middle Persian word yazd or yazad (from the ancient Iranian bases *yazatah), meaning “God”, “angel”, “being worthy of worship.” Therefore, the name “Yezidi” can be interpreted as a “nation of angels” or “people worshippers” but also as “people YAZDA”, i.e. “people of God”.
But the brightest trace of Zoroastrianism is full of caste yeidckol the closeness of the community. It is divided strictly into three castes – the priestly two (sheikhs and peers) and one secular (MIDI), although a secular caste, to which most of the Yezidis, is by definition the followers of spiritual teachers and is closely connected with the two higher. So every MRD (simple by Yazid) should have “brother of the afterlife”, which can only be representative of the caste of sheikhs and Pirs.“Brother of the afterlife” is supposed to help the deceased Yazid walk along a thin bridge (a direct analog of the Zoroastrian bridge Chinvat) in Paradise. Castes are strictly endogenous, and to enter into marriage or even cohabitation with the representatives of other castes all Yazid is strictly prohibited. This is justified by the fact that Yezidi belong to a special type of people, radicalontologically – different rest. In yeidckol the legend says that the first people Adam and eve, who did not know of the marriage, tried to make themselves seed of their offspring, placing it in two jars. After 9 months in the jug of Adam from his seed came the babies, male and female, and in the jar eve of her “seed” – the fetid worms. Yezidi believe that they continue the line of these children of Adam, created without the feminine. The rest of the Nations appeared from subsequent children of Adam, conceived from him eve.In this we see the classical Zoroastrian motif of the sacral purity of the children of the Light, which in any case can not be mixed with the children of Darkness. Hence hard engagemnet castes.
The first of the three main rules of the religion of the Yezidis is the prohibition of the mixing of castes. The second rule is a ban on change of faith. Third – prohibition of disobedience to the priests, and especially on violence against castes of the sheikhs and peers.
All of these elements that are fundamental for religion, Yezidis and their ethno-political organizations are directly descended from the classical Zoroastrianism.
However, in the myths and legends Yezidis have an interesting trait that has, at this time, the Turanian roots. It concerns the ban on cereals. The very fall of Adam is described not as a consequence of eating the Apple, but as a result of eating grainthat is forbidden by God. This is a classic trait of a society of nomads, who perceived the grains is an integral part of agricultural culture – as the restricted field of its kind “ad for the nomad”. Fall for the media purely Turanian culture is the adoption of food bread. The same story is preserved in the Indo-European people of Talysh, close in language and culture to the Kurds, but in contrast to the Kurds (primarily the southern – Zaza and Hourani) Talysh have not left their territories and do not migrate from the Caspian sea in Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the middle East, remained on the lands of Azerbaijan. Thus, to the classical Zoroastrianism in the Kurdish yazidism added pronounced Turan trail.
Then you can distinguish the different elements of the heterodox iranism combined with Judeo-Christian motifs. We saw in another volume of “Naumachie”how the Judeo-Christian currents close to iranism genetically and conceptually. Conversely, the Judeo-Christian sects had a great influence on Mani and, accordingly, on the premises. Traces of Judeo-Christianity among the Yezidis, we see preserved the rite of baptism and communion wine during the sacred meal. In addition, Yezidi practice circumcision, which also corresponds to the Judeo-Christian cycle. So the fact that the main sanctuary of the Yezidis in Laleche was once Nestorian monastery fits into this sequence. For these Iranian-Christian heterodox movements (such as mandee, Sabie, etc.) was characteristic of Gnostic motifs, which are abundant from Yezidis. This layer has, this time, of middle Eastern origin and is superimposed on more ancient Turano-Iranian identity.
And finally, the Islamic influence are the last layer of a complex religion of the Yezidis. Here we see how Sufi and Shiite traditions. Sufism is associated with the practice of veneration of the Shaykh as the Qutb, pole. Important role in the metaphysics of the Yezidis is white pearls, which before the beginning of creation, embodied the divine essence. This theme is Central to the Sufi ontology, developing the thesis of the hadith that “God was a hidden treasure (a gem) but wanted to be known”. This image plays a big role in the teachings of the Shia-nutiriton.With Shi’ism also associated ideas about the special importance of the first circle of followers of the Sheikh that the Shiites was transferred to the family of Mohammad and especially the family of Imam Ali.
Special attention in the teaching of Yezidis attracted to the ambiguity of the main sacred Gestalt – angel-Peacock (Malak-TA uz), identified with the Jewish angel Azaila. In the Jewish Kabbalah the same name (Aza, Azael) named the demon of death. The texts of the Yezidis emphasize that in other religions, leading their descent from Adam and eve, and not just from Adam, as Yezidi, understanding of the angel-Peacock distorted and it is considered a “fallen angel”. This theme-the most alarming in the religion of the Yezidis, forcing the surrounding culture to consider them “devil-worshipers”.On the one hand, the image of the primordial birds may be correlated with the Indo-European tradition – from the sacred birds of the Scythians, the Garuda of the Hindus, the Simurgh of the Persians, or the eagle of Zeus the Greeks. But nowhere is this image does not have the slightest ambiguity and considered the fatherly attribute of the Supreme celestial deity.
However, we find the demonization of an eagle outside the Indo-European context, the Adyghe-Abkhaz peoples of the Caucasus, where iron eagle angry God Paco becomes the victim of a “positive” hero Bataraza, and in addition, there is an even more expressive way “tha bird of birds”, which appears in the form of the head of the fallen angels. The geographical proximity of Caucasians and Kurds, as well as the General connection with Hurrian substratum, suggests another dimension of the Kurdish religion of yezidism responsible for its “dark” or at least ambiguous aspects.
This ambiguity can add subtle dialectics and metaphysics of the Sufi al-Hallaj, which contains a kind of justification of Iblis (devil) refused to prostrate before prostiraetsya Adam not from pride, but from absolute Love to God, not allowing any intermediary. This theme is consonant with the Gnostic explanation of the Fallen Sophia. Although directly from the Yezidis, this topic is not accented himself Gnostic order of their traditions and antinomistic some hints – for example, the plot of “the Black Book” of the Yezidis, where Malarkey- ‘ TA uz is pushing Adam to violate God’s prohibition on eating grain – fully admit this interpretation.
In General, the religion of the Yezidis reflects the depth of Kurdish identity, Dating back to ancient eras. With Zoologicheskii point of view, this — the Apollonian solar tradition, but contains Gnostic elements and, respectively, the Logos of Dionysus.The analysis of what accuse Yezidis foreign criticism and that is the ambiguous aspects of their religion is based mostly on a misunderstanding of its internal structure, as well as on a misinterpretation of the figures and images that really compounded the existing syncretism and the closeness of the Yezidis, complicating the understanding of the whole morphology of their teachings.Features of matriarchy and Titanic in the tradition of the Yezidis almost completely absent, and the ambiguity of the figures – such as Malarkey-TA uz – stems from the presence of the Dionysian dimension, always suggesting the possibility of “black twin”. The one thing you can see the hint of the Titanic is the motive of the demonization of the image of the birds that we meet the Circassians in the Caucasus and that contextually matches the chthonic complex.But again they themselves Yezidis of the angel-Peacock, presented on sacred images – sangako, has a negative connotation, and Malarkey- ‘ TA uz is considered to be the executor of the will of the Supreme Creator, his alter ego, the manifestation and even the embodiment – in the case of Sheikh ADI, whose image blends with the image of the angel-Peacock.
The Kurds are Shia
Quite differently, the Kurdish identity is manifested at the other extreme of the religious spectrum – the Kurds, the Shiites. Here it is necessary to allocate two groups – the Kurds, the Alevis, the most numerous among ethnic groups Zaza (but also among the Northern Kurdish – Kurmanji) and Kurdish communities, sharing the teachings of the ahlul-Haq (literally, “people of truth”).
The Alevis represent the Shi’a-Sufi order, established in the XIII century in South-East Anatolia, close to school, founded by Hadji-Bektash, and later became the religious basis of the “new army” of the Ottoman sultans, the Janissaries. The Alevis have continued the tradition of extreme Iranian Sufism (Gulet) in the center of which stood the veneration of Ali and the Imams, as well as Salman of Fars, as a special key figures iranocentric light of gnosis. Later in the XV and XVI centuries, the Alevis joined the Turkish branch of the Kizil-Bashi, which became the basis of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, but in the Turkish territories under the control of Sunni were forced to adapt to hostile conditions and to hide their identity.Similarly, the Kurds saw in alevism the opportunity to stay in Ottoman society where the dominant power after Selim I becomes aggressive and rather intolerant zakharetskyi Islam as alevism Ottoman rulers felt homage to the original as religious ideology the first of the Ottoman rulers and to the spiritual basis of the most important military, political and religious institution of the Ottoman army of Janissaries and the Bektashi order.
On the other hand, in alevism the Kurds have seen many features similar to the Zoroastrian tradition, which made their participation in this course is justified from the point of view of preservation of their original Indo-European identity. The number of the devil ritual brings the Kurdish Alevis with Yazid. For example, among them there is the principle of strict endogamy – Kurds-Alevis have the right to enter into marriage only with representatives Levitsky communities thus maintained that purity “children of Light”, which is based on mazgeika tradition and various later iranism.
Another period of radical Shiism (ghulat) is founded by the Sultan’s king Sahak at the end of the XIV century, the teachings of the Ahli-Haqq. This trend has spread among the southern Kurds, and especially among the Kurds of Iran. Most of them belong to the Goran ethnic group, but there is also a large group Ahli-Haqq, the Kurdish peoples, kelhuri and lurav. Another name for this exercises Arsan (Yâresân — literally “loving community” or “community friends”).
The doctrine of the movement of ahlul-Haqq is largely in line with yezidism. It also indicated the idea of the incarnation of higher beings (God or angels) in the chain of the seven chosen messengers. This theme is the classic Judeo-Christian prophetology and Manichaeism. It is quite typical for Shia Islam, especially radical, where such embodiments are considered members of the family of Mohammad and the family of Imam Ali. The current members of the Ahli-Haqq recognize seven such successive incarnations, where the second and the third coincide with the line of Shia-semariya – Ali Hassan (“Shakh Choshen”).In General, the teachings of the Ahli-Haqq easy to recognize the influence of the Ismailis (for example, a listing among the helpers of Ali Sheikh Nosara). The first embodiment is Huangdian under which members of the Ahli-Haqq understand the very Supreme Deity. Each implementation is followed by four “angels-friends” or “angel helpers” (yārān-i malak), where the name of the whole community Arsan. The fifth “assistant” isfemale angel, figure, classic Zoroastrianism (pavarti). Ahli-Haqq shares the traditional Sufi doctrine of the four stages of understanding the truth – Sharia, tariqat, Marifat and Haqiqat and accordingly the stages of spiritual development of the soul. Followers of this movement the traditional Sufi practice of Zikr.
The Iranian-Zoroastrian trait is the idea of the dual origin of humanity, which also brings the Ahli-Haqq with Yazid. According to their doctrine, community members Ahli-Haqq originally created from the “yellow clay” (zarda-gel), while the rest of humanity – from “black earth” (ḵāk-e sīāh).
Eschatology Ahli-Haqq in General reproduces the classical Shi’ism: selected waiting Time, the Mahdi. But according to the teachings of Ahli Haqq, the Mahdi will appear among the Kurds in the Kurdish region Sultania (Iranian province of Zanjan) or Shahrazuri – a city that, according to the Kurdish legends, was founded by king DIACOM (or Giucco), considered the founder of the dynasty of median kings. This detail emphasizes the ethnocentric nature of the Kurdish eschatology.
However, like the Yezidis, we see the influence of Judeo-Christian groups, in particular, recognized the immaculate conception of the founder (or reformer) of the teachings of Sultan’s king Sahak, whose tomb in the city of Partyware is a center of pilgrimage.
In the late XIX – early XX century one of the spiritual leaders Ahli-Haqq Hadj Namatalla put a lot of effort to revitalize this group, having published a number of religious and poetic texts, among the Kurds enjoying great popularity – primarily the “Shah-nama-Haqiqat” (“the Royal book of truth”).
The Kurds: identity and the state
Despite the fact that the Kurds are descended from the Medes, founders of a mighty Empire, and that the Kurds have often been the founders of strong dynasties (such as Aubade), their own state, they were not able to create until now.
However, the Kurds have made a significant contribution to the culture of the Islamic middle Ages – and particularly in the field of poetry. The first Kurdish poet is considered the Feast Shariar, who lived in the tenth century and left a case of short aphoristic poems, extremely popular with the Kurds. Other early Kurdish poet was Ali Hariri (1009-1079). The first grammar of the Kurdish language was in X –XI centuries, a contemporary of Ali Hariri poet Taraki, who was the first who began to write poems in the language Kurmanji. One of the works of Taraki bears the same name as the famous play of Calderon “Life truly is a dream.”
Later in the sixteenth century the famous Kurdish poet Chalk Jasiri laid the Foundation of the Sufi currents in Kurdish poetry, becoming a role model for the next generations of Kurdish poets of the Sufis. The Kurds, who belonged to the intellectual elite, from the early poets shows special attention to the Kurdish identity. In the XVII century another Sufi Kurdish poet Faki Tayran (1590 – 1660), also called “Mir Mehmet”, gathered many Kurdish folk tales in the collection “tales of the Black Horse” (Qewlê Hespê Reş). He first sang the heroic defense of the fortress Dimdim in 1609 – 1610.
The Kurdish elite are gradually recognizing the anomaly – the gap between the great history of the Kurds, the level of awareness of their unique identity, militancy and heroism, on the one hand, and subordination part of other Empires at the beginning of the Arab Caliphate, then the Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Iran.
So, pain of the missing state of the Kurds, the nostalgia for past greatness permeated the works of prominent Kurdish poet Ahmad Khani (1650-1708), author of the famous Kurdish epic poem about the tragic love of “mam and Zin”. Ahmed Hany is one of the first ideologists of the Kurdish Renaissance and is famous as a fighter for Kurdish identity, preparing the next stage of the awakening of national consciousness. This line continued the other major Kurdish poet Haji Qadir Coy (1816-1894). In his work the desire for liberation of the Kurds and establish their own state is even more contrasting and clear.
In the XIX century, when the Ottoman Empire begins to weaken and many people who were in its composition (Arabs, Greeks, Slavs, etc.), begin to develop the projects of independence, similar sentiments emerge among Kurds. In 1898, in Cairo published the first newspaper in the Kurdish language “Kurdistan”. Later the newspaper “the day of the Kurds” (later renamed “the Sun of the Kurds”) starts to be printed in Istanbul. In the Turkish language published the journal “gene” (“Life”), which openly proclaimed the establishment of an independent Kurdish state.
By the end of the XIX century, the Kurds have increasingly raised anti-Turkish uprising (for example, in 1891 in Dersim).
The Kurds in the first phase supported the young Turks and the rise to power of Kemal Ataturk, seeing it as a hope for the end of oppression by the Ottoman administration.Alevis even admitted to Ataturk Mahdi, an eschatological figure destined to liberate the people from oppression and injustice: so the religious consciousness interpreted the end of the era of Sunni domination hard Sacharissa that with the era of Selim I and Suleiman the Magnificent was replaced by a totally different – spiritual and iranists style — the religion of the first Ottoman rulers, is inextricably linked with the fiery Sufi Sheikh Haji-Bektas, Yunus Emre, and Rumi and many of the Shia themes.
However, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Kurds have not received the desired. Part of Kurdistan remained in the new Turkish state, the other was included in the Iraq occupation by the English administration, the third went to Syria, and the fourth remained in Iran.So a huge forty people were divided into four parts consisting of two colonial powers, where the dominant ideology was Arab nationalism (Syria and Iran), Turkey, where he established Turkish nationalism in the new – secular – form, and Iran, where the dominant dvenadtsatiletny Shia Islam and Persian identity also served as the common denominator of the state, keeping the Kurds a special place, although not harassing them to the extent in which it has occurred in Iraq, Syria and Turkey.
So the twentieth century became the era of the Kurds create their own state, and this issue was deferred to an uncertain future. Among the Kurds there was not a clear understanding as to what should be a Kurdish state, and on what ideological basis it must rest. Moreover, there was no agreement among the leaders.
So in each of the countries where Kurds live, there is the following power. In Turkey the political expression of the aspirations of the Kurds for autonomy and limit independence was the left organization founded on socialist (Communist) principles – the Kurdistan workers ‘ Party. The Soviet Union since the mid 40-ies provided the Kurds with military and political support to counter the interests of Western countries in the middle East.So on the Soviet territory from the defeated Iraqis Maharadsha a short-lived Kurdish Republic fled the Iraqi Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani (1903 — 1979), where he was received, and then sent to Iraq. Therefore, for the Kurds of the Soviet Union was a geopolitical fulcrum, which largely determined the ideological orientation of the Kurds – especially the Turkish. Hardly among the Kurds who lived in a traditional society, Communist ideology (Second political theory) were understandable and attractive, so the choice is likely determined by pragmatic considerations. In addition, the Iraqi Kurds have repeatedly faced with the British (the first anti-British uprising raised the brother of Mustafa Barzani Ahmed in 1919), during which the British have made punitive operations against the Kurds, destroying everything in its path, but the British were enemies of the USSR.
The head of the PKK was Abdullah Ocalan, who led the armed insurgency of the Kurds, proclaimed in 1984, the beginning of the armed struggle for an independent Kurdistan. The military wing of the party are “National defense forces”. Currently Ocalan is in a Turkish prison, being sentenced to life imprisonment. The working Party of Kurdistan in many countries considered a “terrorist organization”.In fact, on behalf of the Kurds in Turkey now stands, the peace and democracy Party, converted from banned in 2009 the democratic party of the companies. But for all of these structures remains established among the Turkish Kurds, the tradition of orientation to left-wing socialist and social democratic ideas.
The Iraqi Kurds are United in the Democratic party of Kurdistan, Mustafa Barzani formed, which, as we have seen, also focused on the Soviet Union and enjoyed its support. The military wing of the party is the Kurdish army – the Peshmerga (Pêşmerge literally, “those who look death in the face”), which arose in the late nineteenth century during the struggle of the Iraqi Kurds for independence.
In the leadership of the Kurdistan Democratic party at an early stage there was a confrontation between the two leaders, reflecting the interests of the two Kurdish tribal entities – on the one hand, it was the representative of the tribe of Barzan the hero of the struggle for Kurdish independence, Mustafa Barzani, whose work after his death was headed by his son, the current President of Iraqi Kurdistan Massoud Barzani, and Jalal Talabani, the current President of Iraq. After the defeat of the forces of the Western coalition forces of Saddam Hussein, Barzani and Talabani have jointly established political and military control over the territories of Iraqi Kurdistan.But the contradictions between the leaders was reflected in the actual division of Iraqi Kurdistan into two parts – Eastern (Sulaimaniya, Soran district, named for a tribe of Kurdish Sorani), the home of Talabani, where its position was the strongest, and on the North-West (Bandania), homeland Barzani, dominated by his supporters.
In Syria, the main organization of the Kurds can be considered the Kurdish democratic party of Syria. Currently, during the civil war in Syria, there is also the Syrian national Council, which includes other forces. The Syrian Kurds did not have such prominent figures like Barzani, Talabani or Ocalan, so their ideas and structure has a great influence either Turkish or Iraqi Kurdish organizations, where in both cases there was a strong left-wing tendencies.
In Iran, the Kurds live on the territory of the four provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, West Azerbaijan and Ilam. Iranian Kurds have historically shown less willingness to create an independent statehood and no organized centralized Autonomous political structures. In 2012, this Association has made a request for two party Democratic party of Iranian Kurdistan and Komala (Revolutionary workers party of Kurdistan).
The Kurds, along with the Afghans, Ossetians and Darda, are one of the unique Indo-European peoples, which continue many of the traditions of Turanian age. They retained elements of the Logos of Turan, militancy, archaic language and partly a nomadic life until very recently.
 A. G. Dugin Ethnosociology. M.: Academic project, 2014.
 the Medes neighboring Nations were called by the term “Mar”. The Kurds believe that this name should be attributed to their direct ancestors and offer to identify “Marov” with the Kurds.
 the Famous temple of the Yezidis Lalish where the tomb of the revered Kurdish Yazid Sheikh ADI Ibn Musafir previously was part of the Nestorian monastery of the Apostle Thomas. In pre-Christian times this sacred complex was the temple of the Sun.
 There is a tradition that the first Kurd, accepted the forces, was a companion of Mohammad (Sahib) Jaban al-Kurdi, who had returned after the death of Mohammad in Kurdistan and preached Islam there.
 E. Spät , The Yezidis. London: Saqi, 2005.
 For a short period in the late XVIII century in Iran was established the Kurdish dynasty of Zenda, the head of which stood Kerim Khan Zend. It is significant that the Kurds have so lacked the ethnic solidarity that the Qajars, opponents of Zenda, relied on the tribes of the Kurds – muqri, Ardalan etc.
 This brings the Kurds with Armenians, have undergone a similar fate.
 Joseph I. Devil Worship: The Sacred Books and Traditions of the Yezidiz. Boston: R. G. Badger, 1919.
 Semenov A. A. the Worship of Satan from the Persian Kurds-Yezidis /the Bulletin of the middle-Asian State University, 1927, No. 16.
 A. G. Dugin , Naumachia. The Iranian Logo. Light war and culture expectations. M.: Academic project, 2016.
 A. G. Dugin , Naumachia. Semites. The monotheism of the moon and Gestalt VA Ala. M.: Academic project, 2016.
 Dugin A. G. Naumachia. Horizons and civilizations of Eurasia. The Indo-European heritage and traces of the great Mother. M.: Academic project, 2017.
 Dugin A. G. Naumachia. Three Logo. M.: Academic project, 2014.
 Dugin A. G. Naumachia. Horizons and civilizations of Eurasia. The Indo-European heritage and traces of the great Mother. Decree. Op.
 Dugin A. G. Naumachia. The Iranian Logo. Light war and culture expectations. Decree. Op.
 Mokri M. La Grande Assemblée des Fidèles de Vérité au tribunal sur le mont Zagros en Iran (Dawra-y Dīwāna-Gawra). P.: Based, 1977.
 Rudenko, M. B. Critical text, translation, Foreword and tables a poem by Ahmad Khani Mom and Zin. M.: an SSSR, 1962.
 A. G. Dugin The Fourth Way. Introduction to the Fourth Political Theory. M.: Academic project, 2014.
 the Barzan Tribe is a Confederation of several Kurdish tribes United in the XIX century under the authority of the sheikhs of the Naqshbandi Sufi order. For the first time this has occurred when Sheik Abdel-Salam I. he was succeeded by Sheikh Abdel-Salam II participated in the anti-Turkish uprisings, and later in hiding in Russia, after he returned to Iranian Kurdistan, was issued by the Turks and executed in Mosul. Abdel-Salam II was the brother of Ahmed Barzani and Mustafa Barzani.