Geopolitics and geostrategy | Anastasia Kovaleva

https://www.geopolitica.ru/article/geopolitika-i-geostrategiya

Anastasia Kovaleva

Geostrategy is a discipline that is derivative with respect to geopolitics and therefore conditioned by its features. The subject and object of geopolitics are dynamic quantities interacting with spatial and temporal dimensions. Dynamic essence of geopolitical processes was noted by a number of researchers, in particular, Challain, Ratzel, Haushofer, Vandam (Edrikhin), Dugin, Mackinder and others. Space as an object of geopolitical research has a sociological dimension and is not equal to the physical space that is the object of the study of geography. The geopolitical space is not abstract, it acquires a certain specifics depending on the society that actively interacts with it, “interpreting” it in its inherent cultural categories. ” The people interacting with the “enclosing landscape” is the protagonist of the historical process.

Geopolitics is an organic entity. The term “organic” is understood as integral, not reducible to mechanistic categories and comprising a large number of poorly amenable or generally unrecordable factors. The author of the term “geopolitics” was the author of the term “geopolitics”, the Swedish theoretician Rudolf Challain, in the work “The state as a form of life” compared the state with the human being: “We only state that states, as far as we find them in history and in reality and penetrate into Them, represent a reasonable, moral essence , exactly the same as people. “

The geopolitical strategy, which is the way to implement geopolitical interests, is instrumental and follows from the geopolitical vector determined by the geopolitical code – the system of political relations of the state with the outside world: “Includes state interests, identification of external threats and technology for their elimination or neutralization.” The geopolitical code is a historically formed matrix, formed from the past to the present, taking into account many factors influencing the interests of the given state.

The geopolitical vector is the direction of the state’s movement in a qualitatively perceived (that is, received public, cultural, civilizational understanding) geopolitical code. This movement always proceeds from a certain foreign policy goal and therefore presupposes one or another type of state influence (military-political, economic, cultural, etc.) on the surrounding world.

Geopolitical strategy is a complex phenomenon and includes the following components: political, military, economic, religious, cultural, and demographic.

The political component of the geostrategy is one of the most important. It determines the interaction of the state with the zones of expansion, which can be included, boundary (or frontier) and external. The included zone is the actual territory of the given state, recently annexed to the main part. It should be organized in accordance with the cultural code of the state and society. The bordering (or frontier) is a mobile zone of the expansion of the state, which has no clear boundaries and rigid administrative status. And, finally, the outer zone is the territory of other states with which the expanding state interacts, entering into diplomatic relations or competing with them in this or that sphere.

The military component is responsible for the active stage of geopolitical expansion, as well as for maintaining the security of the included zone and state borders. As a rule, it is a continuation of the political component, although one can imagine their conflict (in case the military circles disagree with the political leadership).

The economic component is responsible for various types of economic expansion – economic, trade, industrial, technological (modernization). It includes components of public and private initiatives.

The religious component consists in spreading the religion and religious values of the metropolis in the developed territories. Realizes the value unification of the territory of the state. Also, religion can serve also in the interests of external expansion, helping to develop the territory of the object of expansion.

The cultural component also contributes to the integration of various elements within the state. If we define culture as the whole experience accumulated by this society, then the cultural component of the geostrategy is the spreading of its civilizational experience to the territories under study.

If we are talking about external expansion, then the cultural component has a neighboring population of each other, contributes to their mutual understanding (ideally its result is the subsequent cultural self-identification with civilization or the state spreading expansion). Cultural expansion can take an aggressive character, either leading to the destruction of the cultural code of the object of expansion, or to its subsequent rejection by the society that is the object of expansion.

The demographic component presupposes the resettlement of the inhabitants of the state that is carrying out expansion, on the territory under development. It is possible to single out the primary demographic component-the resettlement of a part of the metropolitan population to the territory under study, and the secondary one -the first and subsequent generations born in the given territory.

Geostrategy is divided into general and private (or local). The general geostrategy describes the behavior of the country as a geopolitical unit as a whole, while the private one reveals the content of specific geopolitical vectors, for example, the Pacific vector of Russian geopolitics.

Geostrategy in the aggregate of its components is a way of realizing geopolitical interests. Geopolitical interests are those goals and tasks in different time perspective that the state sets itself based on geopolitical code. As the tasks are being implemented, the geostrategy itself is transformed, being guided by an ever-changing situation, and changes can sometimes be contradictory – too many differently directed factors coexist at the same time in the same plane. Geopolitical code is much less subject to transformation unit, although over time it can also change.

Therefore, the geostrategy should be considered both in the current state and in the historical context. Only with the connection of the historical context can we derive general patterns for geostrategy as a complex phenomenon, especially since many emerging trends due to the above multi-factority can be seen as contradictory and lend themselves to an objective evaluation only with the passage of time.

So, the geostrategy is a derivative of an official discipline that allows us to consider the sphere of geopolitics in a dynamic perspective, to detail and describe its basic components.

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