The definition of “geopolitics”
Proceedings of numerous representatives geopolitical schools there, in spite of all their differences and sometimes contradictions add up to one overall picture, which allows us to speak about the subject as something finished and certain. Those or other authors and dictionaries differ from each other in the definition of the main subject matter of this science and the main methodological principles Sgiach. This discrepancy stems from historical circumstances and because of the close connection with the geopolitics of world politics, issues of power and dominant ideologies. The synthetic nature of this discipline involves the inclusion of many other subjects of geography, history, demography, strategies, ethnography, religious Niya, environmental, military, history, ideology, sociology, political science, etc. Since all of these military, science and humanities by themselves have a variety of schools and directions, then talk about some kind of rigor and uniqueness in geopolitics does not come camping. But what definition to this discipline, so vague and at the same time expressive and impressive?
Geopolitics is a worldview, and as such it is best not to compare with science, but with the system of science. It is on the same level as that of Marxism, liberalism, etc., IE, systems of interpretation of society and history, stand out as a basic principle of any one essential criterion, and which reduce it to all the other countless aspects of human and nature.
Marxism (1) and liberalism still lay the basis for the economic side of human existence, the principle of “the economy as a destiny.” It does not matter that these two ideologies do the opposite conclusion, Marx comes to the inevitability of anti-capitalist revolution, and Adam Smith’s followers believe that capitalism is the most perfect model of society. And in the first and second cases it is offered a detailed method of interpretation of the historical process, the particular sociology, anthropology and political science. And despite the constant criticism of these forms of “economic reduction nism” with alternative (and marginal), academia, they remain the dominant social model on the basis of which people do not comprehend just past but also shaping the future, ie, plan, design, conceive and carry out large-scale actions that directly affect all of humanity.
Similarly, it is with geopolitics. But unlike the “economic ideology”, it is based on the thesis: “the geographical terrain as fate.” Geography and space appear in the geopolitics of the same features as the money and the relations of production in Marxism and liberalism reduce to them all osnovopola gayuschie aspects of human existence, they serve as the basic method of interpretation of the past, they appear as the main factors of human existence, organizing around himself all other side of existence. As in the case of economic ideologies, geopolitics is based on proximity, on the reduction-organisms, reducing the multiple manifestations of life in several ways, but in spite of a deliberate error always inherent in such theories, it impresses slit prove their harmony on the issue of explaining the past and the marginal efficiency of the organization present and future of design.
If we continue the parallel with Marxism and classical bourgeois political economy, we can say that, like the economic ideology claiming a special category of “homo economicus” (homo economicus), geopolitics speaks of “human space Venn”, a predetermined space is formed by Mr. and due to its specific quality relief, terrain. But this conditionality is particularly pronounced in large-scale human social manifestations in the states, ethnic groups, cultures, civilizations, etc. The dependence of each individual on the economy is evident in small and in large proportions. Therefore, economic determinism and understandable to ordinary people and powerful instances, use the larger social categories. For this reason, perhaps, economic ideology has become so popular and perform the function of mobilization until the Revolution, based on personal engagement in the ideology of many individual people. man’s dependence on space of the main thesis of geopolitics is seen only at a certain distancing from a single individual. And why did not geopolitics despite the conditions of their own ideology or, more precisely, the “mass ideology it.” Its conclusions and methods, subjects of study and the main points intelligible only to those social instances that are engaged in large-scale problems of strategic planning, conceptualization of global social and historical laws, etc. Space manifests itself in large quantities, and thus geopolitics meant for social groups dealing with generalized realities of countries, peoples, etc.
Geopolitics is a world power, the science of power and authority. Just as a person approaches the apex of the social geopolitics beginning to discover its meaning for him, their meaning and their favor, whereas before that it is perceived as an abstraction. Geopolitics of the discipline of political elites (both actual and alternative), and her story proves that it engaged exclusively in people who are actively involved in the management of states and nations, or preparing for this role (if it was a question of alternative, oppositional GOVERNMENTAL ideological camps, removal from power because of historical conditions).
Without claiming to be scientific rigor, geopolitics at its level itself determines what is valuable and what is not for her. Humanities and natural sciences are involved only when they do not contradict the basic principles of the geopolitical method. Geopolitics, in some way, she selects those of science and those areas of science that are useful to her, ignoring everything else. In today’s world it is a “quick reference ruler” power tutorial, which provides a summary of what to consider when making global (fateful) solutions such as forging alliances, the outbreak of war, the implementation of reforms, restructuring of the company, the introduction of the scale GOVERNMENTAL economic and political sanctions, etc.
Geopolitics is a science of law.
Tellurocracy and Thalassocracy
The main law of geopolitics is the assertion of a fundamental dualism reflected in geografiche skom device of the planet and in the historical typology of civilizations. This duality expressed in protivopos tavlenii “tellurocracy” (land power) and “thalassocracy” (sea power). The nature of this confrontation is reduced to the opposition of the trade civilizations (Carthage, Athens) and civilization of the military-authoritarian (Rome, Sparta). In other terms, the dualism between “democracy” and “ideocracy”.
From the outset this dualism is the quality of hostility, alternative poles of two of its components, although the degree may vary from case to case. The entire history of human society is thus seen as consisting of two elements “water” ( “liquid”, “flow”) and “land” ( “solid”, “Time”).
“Tellurocracy” “overland power” associated with fixity space and its resistance value and characteristics orientations. On civilization-insulating level is embodied in the Settlement, conservatism, in strict legal regulations, which are subject to large associations of men of tribes, nations, states, empires. Hardness Sushi cultural ethics embodied in the hardness and stability of social traditions. Land (especially sedentary) peoples alien to individualism, the spirit of entre stances. They attach to the collectivism and hierarchy.
“Thalassocracy”, “sea power” is a type of civilization based on opposing units. This type of dynamic, mobile, inclined to the technical development. His priorities kochevniche equality (especially sailing), sale, the spirit of individual entrepreneurship cial. The individual is the most mobile part of the team is elevated to the highest value, and the ethical and legal standards eroded, become relative and mobile. This type of civilization is evolving rapidly, actively evolving, easy to change external cultural attributes, keeping constant internal only Nosta identical total installation.
Most of human history unfolds in a situation of limited scope both orientations at global domination “tellurocracy”. Earth Element (Land) dominates the whole ensemble of civilizations, and the element “water” (sea, ocean) appears only fragmentary and sporadic. Dualism until a certain point is geographically localized sea shore and estuary river basins and the like. D. Confronting of developing in various zones of the planet with different intensity in different forms.
The political history of the peoples of the earth shows the gradual growth of political forms, becoming more and more ambitious. So there are states and empires. This process is at the geopolitical level means increased space factor in human history. The nature of the major political formations of states and empires, expresses the duality of the elements more impressive, leaving the level of more and more types of universal civilization.
At a certain point (the ancient world) adds up to be quite stable pattern, reflected in “Mackinder’s map.” tellurocracy zone identifications wish to set up a stable inland expanse of the North-Eastern Eurasia (broadly coinciding with the territories of Tsarist Russia or the Soviet Union). Talassokra ment more clearly designated as coastal zones Skog the Eurasian continent, the Mediterranean area, Atlantiche sky ocean and the seas washing Eurasia to the South and West.
So the geopolitical map of the world takes on the specifics:
1) space-locked become “fixed platform” heartland’om ( “Heartland”), “geographical pivot of history”, which stably retains tellurocratic civilizational specificities.
2) “Inner crescent or Continental”, “Coastal Zone”, rimland are space intensive cultural development. There are obvious features of “thalassocracy”. Although they are balanced by many “tellurocratic” tendencies.
3) “Outer crescent or insular” represents “unknown lands”, which are possible only naval communications. He first makes itself felt in Carthage Phoenician civilization and trade, impact on the necks of the “inner crescent” from outside Europe.
This ratio geopolitical picture talassokra tellurocracy detected TII and potentially to the top of the Christian era, after the age Punic wars. But finally it makes sense in the period of becoming England Nia great maritime power in the XVII XIX centuries. The era of great geographical discoveries, which began with the end of the XV century, led to a final formation thalassocracy independent planetary formation, to break away from Eurasia and its banks and completely concentrated in the Anglo-Saxon world (Britain, America), and the colonies. “New Carthage” Anglo-Saxon capitalism and industrialism took shape into something unified and whole, and since then has acquired a geopolitical dualism already clearly discernible ideological and political forms.
Positional battle of England with continental powers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Russia has geopolitical content XVIIIXIX centuries (+ second half of the XX century), and from the middle of this century, the main stronghold of the US steel thalassocracy.
In the Cold War 1946 1991’s eternal geopolitical dualism reached maximum proportions Thalassocracy identified with the United States, and Tellurocracy with the USSR.
Two types of global civilization, culture, meta-ideology resulted in a complete geopolitical outline summarizing the entire geo-political history of opposition elements. In this case, it is striking that these forms completed geopolitical dualism on the ideological level corresponded to two equally synthetic reality Marxist ideology (socialism) and the ideology of liberal capitalism.
In this case, we can talk about the implementation in practice of the two types of “reductionism”: the economic reductionism has been reduced to the opposition of the ideas of Smith and Marx’s ideas, and the geopolitical to the separation of all the sectors of the planet into zones controlled by talassokra TII (New Carthage, USA) and tellurocracy (New Rome , THE USSR).
Geopolitical vision of history is a model of planetary dualism to maximal proportions. Land and sea spread their initial opposition to the whole world.
Human history is nothing more than an expression of the struggle and the path to its absolute.
This is the most general expression of the basic law of geopolitics law dualism elements (Land against the Sea).
Until the moment of the final victory of the US in the Cold War geopolitical dualism evolved in primordial but set within it was about finding Thalasso cracy and Tellurocracy maximum of the spatial, strategic and power output. In view of the increase in both the nuclear potential of some of geopolitics-pessimists outcome of all this process is catastrophic, as fully mastered the planet, the two might have been a move the opposition beyond the earth (the theory of star wars), or destroy each other mutually (nuclear apocalypse) .
If the nature of the main geopolitical history of the process of the maximum spatial extension and thalassocracy tellurocracy for this distsipli us is clear, then the outcome is uncertain. In this respect, no determinism, no.
Consequently, geopolitical teleology, i.e. understanding of the target history in geopolitical terms, comes just before the moment of globalization dualism and stops here.
But, nevertheless, on a purely theoretical level, one can isolate several versions of the alleged events after stating the Vat will be the victory of one of the two thalassocracy systems.
1st option . Thalassocracy victory completely abolishes tellurocracy civilization. On the planet we establish the uniform of the liberal-democratic order. Thalassocracy absolutizes your archetype and becomes a single system of organization of human life. This option has two advantages: First, it is consistent logically, since it is possible to see the completion of a natural unidirectional Foot (in general) current geopolitical stories of the total domination Sushi (traditional peace) to the total domination of the Sea (Modern World); and secondly, this is what happens in reality.
2nd option . Winning thalassocracy confrontation ends the cycle of two civilizations, but has not spread is a model for the whole world, but simply completes the geopolitical history of the abolitionist perspective. Just as the theory of post-industrial society prove snyatost in this society basic contradiction Chii classical political economy (Marxism), so some mondialist theory argue that in the future world of the confrontation of land and sea will be generally lifted. This is also the “end of history”, but further developments are not amenable to such rigorous analysis, as in the first version.
Both of these tests are discussed tellurocracy defeat as an irreversible and a fait accompli. Two other options are this way.
Third option . Defeat tellurocracy temporary. Eurasia will return to its continental mission in a new form. At the same time will take into account geopolitical factors that led to the crash continental talistskie force (a new continental block will have maritime borders in the South and in the West, that is to implement the “Monroe Doctrine for Eurasia”). In this case, the world will return to bipolarity. But of a different quality and different level.
4th embodiment (which is a development of the previous). In this new opposition wins Tellurocracy. It seeks to move its own civilization onnuyu model for the rest of the planet and “close the story” in its chord. The whole world will turn into a typological land, and everywhere prevail “ideocracy”. Niemi Anticipating this outcome was the idea of “world revolution” and the planetary domination of the Third Reich.
Since nowadays the role of the subjective and the rational factor in the development of historical processes is greater than ever, these four options should be considered not just as an abstract statement of the probable development of the geopolitical process, but also as an active geopolitical position, which can serve as a guide for action on a global scale.
But in this case, geopolitics can not offer any deterministic version. Everything here is limited to the set of features, the implementation of which will depend upon a variety of factors that do not fit into the larger framework of a purely geopolitical analysis.
Rimland and “Zone boundary”
The entire methodology of geopolitical studies based on the application of the principles of the global geopolitical dualism of land and sea to a local category. In the analysis of any situation is the planetary model remains a major and fundamental. Those ratios that are characteristic of the picture is repeated on a more private level.
After separation of the two main principles thalassic kratia tellurocracy and, following essential principle is rimland, “Coastal Zone”. This is a key category, the underlying geopolitical studies.
Rimland is a composite space which potentially bears the opportunity to be a fragment or thalassocracy or tellurocracy. This is the most complex and rich culture of the region. Influence of sea elements, Water, provokes in the “coastal zone” active and dynamic development. Continental weight presses, forcing strukturaliziro Vat energy. On the one hand, rimland enters island and ship. On the other side of the Empire and the House.
Rimland is not limited, however, only to the interim and transitional environment where flows protivodeyst Wier two pulses. This is a very complex reality, which has an independent logic and greatly affects the thalassocracy, and tellurocracies. This is not the object of history, but its active subject. The struggle for rimland thalassocracy and tellurocracy not have competition for the possession of a simple strategic position. Rimland has its own destiny and hydrochloric proper historical will, which, however, can not be resolved outside the basic geopolitical dualism. Rimland are largely free to choose, but it is not free in the structure of choice because in addition to the thalasso cratic or tellurocratic third way it is not given.
In connection with such quality “inner crescent” is often equated with the area in general propagation of human civilization. In the depths of the continent reigns conservatism, outside it the challenge of rolling chaos.
“Coastal Zone” itself of its position faced with the need to give an answer on the proposed geography problem.
Rimland is a border zone, a belt strip. However, this boundary. This combination leads to a geopolitical boundary definition.
In contrast to borders between states, geopolitics understands this term differently, starting from the original model in which pervogranitsey or archetype of all borders is a specific historical and the geographic and cultural concept rimland.
Spatial volume of coastal zones is a consequence of view of the mainland from the outside, “on behalf of marine aliens.” It is for “sea forces” Beach is a strip extending inland. For most of the continent, the shore on the contrary, is the limit line .
The boundary of the line (which is how it is understood in international law) is a vestige of “land law” inherited modern law of the ancient traditions. This is a view purely land.
But the sea view, external to the mainland coastal areas sees as potential colony as strips of land that can be torn off from the rest of the continental mass to turn into a base in the strategic space. In this coastal area never gets to the end “his”; if necessary, you can catch a boat and sail back home on “the island”. Strip the shore becomes precisely due to the fact that aliens from the sea is not safe to go deep into the continent only by a certain distance.
Since geopolitics combines both views on the sea and land space, then it rimland understood as a specific reality, as the boundary of-band, and its quality depends on the volume of the momentum that dominates in this sector by land or sea. Giant and quite navigable ocean coast of India and China are the line, the minimum amount of bandwidth. Appropriate cultures have land orientation and extent of shoreline tends to zero, in addition to becoming a continent end. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean coastal areas are broad bands, stretching far inland. Their volume is maximal. But in both cases we are talking about the geopolitical border. Consequently, this category is variable, varies, depending on the circumstances, from line to line.
This approach geopolitics projects and analysis of more specific issues related to borders. It examines the border between the states as “variable volume zone”. This volume of its reduction or expansion depends on the total of continental dynamics. Depending on the area change its shape and trajectory within a predetermined range. The concept of “geofields cal boundaries” may include the entire state. For example, the English idea “cordon” between Russia and Germany included the creation of “no man’s land” (and semi-oriented England) zone consisting of Baltic and eastern states. Kontinentalistskaya policy of Russia and Germany, by contrast, tended to, to turn this area into line (Brest-Litovsk, Rapallo, Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Thalassocracy-Atlantists sought to expand its maximum, creating artificial “Plotting the state” (etats-tampons).
In this case, a complete and perfect Thalassocracy (England, USA) applies in this case a double standard: the borders of their own Islands thalassocracy seek to reduce to the line, and coastal zones of Eurasia maximize. For kontinentalistskoy geopolitics logical to use exactly the same principle in reverse: Eurasian border line, American border strip.
The analogy with the historical rimland’om as the “cradle of civilization” shows the essential “, the boundaries of zones” in more special cases. Freed from having to bear the burden of the charge history of the geographical “frontier zone” all the time channel their energy into the cultural and intellectual spheres. And the skillful use of “light” Cesky geopolitical potential of art geopolitically strategy of the opposing sides.
In this case it is “naval forces” captured this perfectly, as always based on the principle of maximum and speedy benefiting from the colonized territories. This distinguishes them from the land of the conquerors, who, after capturing the territory immediately began to regard it as their own, and, consequently, are not in a hurry to squeeze out of it all you can.
Geopolitics as fate
geopolitics laws are extremely convenient for the analysis of political history, the history of diplomacy and strategic planning. This science has many intersections with sociology, political science, ethnology, military strategy, diplomacy, history of religions, etc. Indirectly, but sometimes very clearly, and it is linked to the economy, to the point that some geo ki proposes to establish a new science of geo-economics. Anyway, in some aspects geopolitiche Skog method of appeal to the economic realities necessary.
At the moment, when gravity of all types of Sciences to synthesize, to merge, to create new mezhnauch GOVERNMENTAL makrodistsiplin and multidimensional models geopolitics reveals its importance both for purely theoretical research and practical steps in managing complex civilization processes on a global scale or on the scale of the individual States or blocks. It is a science of the future, the foundations of which in the very near future will be taught not only in special institutions of higher education institutions and academies, but also in ordinary schools. With geopolitical analysis can easily comprehend the whole era of the historical development of the countries and peoples. When the characteristic of our time, the expansion of information areas, the emergence of such a simple and visual reductionist methodologies inevitable, because otherwise people at risk of eventually losing all sorts of landmarks in the varieties of SG and multidimensional chaotic stream of diverse knowledge.
Geopolitics invaluable in education. Its structure is such that she could become the center discipline in the new stage of development of school.
However, more and more obvious role of geopolitics in the wider social sphere. The level of development of information tion, the active involvement of the ordinary man in the events unfolding across the continent, “Le Monde tion of” media all this highlights the spatial thinking in geopolitical terms, which helps to “sort” the nations, states, regimes and single religion simplified scale to sense even the most basic television or radio news was at least an approximate idea. If you apply a simple grid geopolitical heartland, rimland, World Island to any communication regarding international events, immediately built some clear interpretation model that does not require additional highly specialized knowledge. “NATO’s expansion to the East,” with such an approach is “an increase in volume in favor rimland thalassocracy”; “Treaty between Germany and France on the establishment of special purely European military forces” “step towards the creation of continental Noah tellurocratic design”; “The conflict between Iraq and Kuwait Continental desire to destroy the state artificial talassokratiche skoe education, preventing the direct control of the coastal zone”, etc.
Finally, about the impact of geopolitical methodology on domestic and foreign policy. If geopolitical cal meaning of certain steps of political parties and movements, as well as the power structures will oche visible, easily match them with a system of global interests, and, therefore, to decipher their far-reaching goals. For example, the integration of Russia with the European countries E (especially Germany) step tellurokra cal forces (Eurasians), it can automatically predict the strengthening of “ideocratic” ( “socialist”) trends in the country. On the contrary, the rapprochement between Moscow and Washington means submission thalassocratic line and inevitably entails a positional gain “marketeers”, etc. Similarly, in the light of the internal laws of geopolitics can be easily interpreted and political processes separatism peoples in Russia, bilateral or multilateral agreements with various administrative units and regions with each other. Each event in the light of geopolitics becomes clear meaning. This geopolitical sense can not be regarded as ultimo ratio events, but in any case it is always highly expressive and useful for analysis and forecasting.
The absence today of any kind was a textbook on the subject prompted us to write this book and drawing, which is an introduction to geopolitics as a science.