Alfred Schütz, a pupil of Husserl, used philosophical phenomenology to sociology1. Because of this, he built an original theory which has enriched sociological discipline. Something similar is quite possible to be done in respect of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Neither Heidegger nor Husserl is not specifically engaged in society and especially sociology. But the depth of their methods and the novelty of his views on the essential problems of epistemology and ontology it is allowed application to various fields of knowledge, including those that they themselves, for whatever reason tend to overlook. It will be quite in the spirit of the thought of Heidegger, who claimed that philosophy contains in itself all the other Sciences in paradigmatic form, in collapsed form. Therefore, to extract from a complete and original range of philosophy implicitly contained in it disciplines – technical question. In General, the construction of the Fourth Political Theory is largely based on the philosophy of Heidegger is precisely this deployment of implicit content.And since the political is closely connected with the social pane, the outline heideggerians of sociology is extremely useful in the building of a Fourth Political Theory as a whole.
The term “society” (Gesellschaft) Heidegger almost never use2, but the term “people” (Volk), on the contrary, found in his texts quite often. We will rely primarily on lectures of summer semester 1934 “Logic as the question concerning the essence of language”3 and “the Black notebooks”4, where Heidegger mentions “people” (Volk) often and where lays the basis for further deployment of its implicit doctrines about society.
Volk als Dasein
First of all should pay attention to the Central concept of the philosophy of Heidegger – Dasein. Feature Dasein’and is that it cannot be considered strictly either as an individual human being, not as a collective, that is public. Dasein ‘s primary and in relation to the individual and to society. All human comes from Dasein’and, consequently, Dasein preindividual and probetween. But existential analysis of Heidegger relates the various aspects of human thinking, actions, culture, habits – that is ekzistirovaniya – Dasein’om in General. So, explains the Dasein of the individual, which includes a whole. In the individual human being there is nothing which would not be in Dasein’E. is based On this existential dimension.All human elevated to Dasein’and finds its resolution.In relation to the individual is explicitly. But just as we could do in relation to society. After all, society ispurely human. Consequently, society as well as individual, is rooted in Dasein’e and allowed it. Like the individual, the society needs to be assistenziali, and therefore, we may set a task of existential intelligence community. Dasein is not an individual and is not public (not the collective). But the individual, on the contrary, reducible to Dasein’, is contained in it. But this is true for companies. The society is also contained in Dasein’E. this implies that society can be considered in optics Dasein’as Dasein itself.
It is important that Heidegger strictly separates the “I” (ich) and Selbst. Selbst acts as a common root for the individual and for society (people). Heidegger says:
Das Selbst ist keine auszeichnende Bestimmung des Ich. Dies ist der Grundirrtum des neuzeitlichen Denkens. Selbst Das wird nicht vom Ich her bestimmt, sondern ist auch der Selbstcharakter ebensogut dem eigen Du, Wir und dem Ihr dem. Das Selbst ist in neuer Weise rätselhaft. Selbstcharakter Der ist nicht gesondert dem Du dem Ich dem Wir zugehörig, sondern gleich dem all in ursprünglicher Weise.5
Selbst is not only the definition of the ego, the “I” (Ich). It is a deep misconception of thinking of the New time. Selbst is not determined by the ego, the “I” (Ich), in contrast, a property also inherent to Selbst “you”, “we” and “you”. Selbst is mysterious in some new sense. Property Selbst does not belong exclusively to only “you”, “me”, “us”, but all the same the original image.
Selbst thus precedes individual and collective, is their common basis. Therefore, we can set the task to explore Selbst companies. This implies a very special attitude towards him.
A society is an existential society. And it is for society, understood in this way, Heidegger uses a word Volk. Volk is the same as Dasein. But only in his philosophy Heidegger mainly focuses on identifying Dasein’and in person, the philosophy, thinking and culture. And since he was not interested in the problem of the individual in itself, it is constantly passed from person to his existential base – Dasein’, often not updating the very structure of the transition. Therefore, the word Mensch (man) in his philosophy, though used infrequently, but in most cases is implied. And each time is a Mensch als Dasein.
But it is quite legitimate to propose and another path out to Dasein – using society. In Heidegger occasionally we find such a path, outlined only very approximately. And in this case he always uses the word Volk. Volk als Dasein.
Existential structure of a Volk
Heidegger, in describing the structure of the people (Volk), of homology with the man.6 In traditional metaphysics in man stood three elements – body, soul and spirit. As we usually do with the people. The body of the people is the space that it occupies and the population number, demography, industry, economy. This is war and peace treaties, trade and crafts.
The soul of the people is the tradition, religion, culture, customs, manners, ethics.
Finally, the spirit of the people embodied in the philosophers, historians, rulers, who are directly responsible for the fate of the people and the state.
But Heidegger rejects this classical stratification just as he refuses to trichotomy when analyzing the human personality. This taxonomy is a consequence of metaphysics, and particularly Platonic metaphysics. But Heidegger puts it into question and seeks to break through to the original elements thinking. So he makes the brackets trichotomy the human structure, to re – fresh the most of the possible ways is to implement the formulation of the question about how we treat Selbst, about who we are, how we are and why we are. The existential Analytics, destruction7 and construction Dasein’have to serve this purpose.
Therefore, the understanding of the people (Volk) must not stop at the differentiation of three levels – body, soul and spirit, but achieved in a new look using the ratio of the people with its Selbst, through bringing people to Dasein’.
In this case, a reliable characteristics of the people are only assistenziali. First of all, it is Sorge (care) and being-towards-death (Sein-zum-Tode).What we call the “body of the people” or the economy, industry and Economics (Wirtschaft), in this case, it ceases to be a single region, determined by material factors. From now on, this area of care (Sorge). The people concerned. And not because the circumstances require, he is concerned about in itself, because it is his nature, his Selbst. Place people in the most favorable conditions, and he will find much to think about. After all, Heidegger’s concern is with the analog Intellinova act of Husserl. Consequently, the economy of the people, his “body”, there is nothing like the structure of intentionality. The economy is intentional. And this is the fundamental conclusion heideggerians sociology: it is no coincidence that people associated with labour and production. Work items with the help of technology is the most vivid form of intentionality. If in the case of the observed natural objects, the artificiality of their construction is not obvious (for those who are not in philosophy), in the field of agriculture it explicitly. Everything created by man is of intentional objects.
To wish that people did not created artificially, he was not involved in the turmoil of τέχνη is like to deprive him of intentionality (Sorge). But it is Dasein that can not be anxious.
But if the “body of the people” in the existential dimension is such that his “soul” and “spirit”, that is, culture and philosophy will not be an add-in on material basis, but will show up as other publications of the same care – Sorge. After all, the creation of a work of art or a philosophical system is nothing else as a result of concerns as intentional act. It is difficult to say where the intentional act of the cleaner and iznachalnaya – on the one hand, prestigrade (workers), element concerns expressed more directly and deep, and the poets and thinkers operate with a secondary, derivative, concepts, but on the other hand, it is the poets and thinkers are closer to the risky essence of the creative act. Worker more existential, it Sorge brighter and more direct. A poet or a thinker in this he was inferior, but they are addressed to elements of death, to nothingness as their creative act clearly dangerous. They correlate with death directly. This meant Hegel in his famous passage about the Master and Slave in the “phenomenology of spirit”8.
Therefore, the existential approach requires one to turn the existential – structuring of the people. In Heidegger, this leads to the emergence of the double horizon.
Volk in General, is Dasein. But in the narrow sense of Volk is Dasein, which is given most directly. It assistenziali are in full force and with full power. In this case the power is dual: it is cleaner and reflects the care (Sorge) – that is why most people in any society and any culture work and produce – and at the same time obscures its power flow hiatus of death. Therefore, the people (Volk) in a narrow sense, is an escape from death. And this is why in the normal state the people cowardly (Furcht), but knows no fear (Angst).
The other pole – the horizon – of the people (Volk) are those whom Heidegger calls only (die Einzelne). This is one instance where Dasein back to itself, that is to clash with the being (Sein).The relationship between the people and the only Heidegger describes in “the Black notebooks”:
Das Volk: die Behütung und Ausführung der Ermächtigung des Seins. Diese aus der Furchtbarkeit der Geworfenheit, deren wesentliche erst Vereinzelung eben das Volk und dessen grosse Einzelnen bleiben. Das’s Wesen aus dieser Einzelnen und in der Vereinzelung zu begreifen als Volk.9
People: protective concealment and the initial manifestation of legitimization of existence. This stems from the fertilisation is checked by abandonment, whose essential vos connection is the people, whose greatness remains the only (one). Being (essence) of these only should understand of and inside of re-integration as a people.
Between the people and the sole is a special word Vereinzelung. It is Heidegger to mate among themselves only (die Einzelne) and the people (Volk). The people is like a Cathedral “the one” where they can and can’t be the only one. The Cathedral is both vos connection is the only Ver-einzelung. But the choice is Vereinzelung Vereinigung (for example) shows not only that something is connected, but that connected (unit only) does not cease to be the only one. Moreover, people do not have prior only and the dismemberment of the base; it already is in itself there is a process of differentiation and integration. Any people may be the only one and is a target in itself. But it becomes the only thing – that is great – only some separate, putting the accent on Selbst svoegosoglasiya in its pure form. However, he does not oppose people and not even extracted from it: after all, the people Selbst and it is people like Selbst, and gives only its contents, its Genesis and its purpose.
Geworfenheit, abandonment is heideggers an existence similar to the subject. We can say that people is the subject, that is the horizon of abandonment. And this abandonment grows in the people in all directions. Limit the height of the germination be the only (die Einzelne). But this height is both the depth and the return of the inside people, because the people there are “a manifestation of legitimization of existence.” And the only achieves existence only in people and through people, because people are being, this-being, Dasein.
The scheme is the existential structure of society
We can represent the structure of society in optics “existential sociology” in the following diagram.
Here we see clearly the unity of the philosophical and sociological understanding Dasein’a. Heidegger describes the fate of Western Dasein’and how to deploy the cooling of the question of being, as the oblivion of being. But the decision (Entscheidung) about how to remember the being (Sein) or to forget about it, think about it or focus on being (Seiende), accept always and only itself Dasein. This is the main thesis heideggers philosophy. Therefore, perhaps a New Beginning of philosophy Dasein may decide to eksisteret authentic. But may decide to eksisteret inauthentic. In the second case power is das Man, which is “I” or “we” (or “all”) inauthentic eksisterer Dasein’. In this case, it is alleged aloof metaphysics and Machenschaft, technology. Only in this case, are becoming less distinguishable from das Man ‘ – they are not kings and not the rulers, but “deputies”, “authorized” and Frank “the jesters,” “the rope dancers”.These are political leaders, and philosophers, and cultural figures. But they are not responsible for this choice. More precisely, deciding to eksisteret inauthentic, they are not separate and apart from the Dasein’, but are soalong with Dasein’ohms. Das Man is established and constituted with the General will. It’s an existential act, in which neglected the presence of turns away from being, that is, from its essence, from its Selbst.
All this obviously manifested itself in sociology. As the philosophy of modern times is the systematic oblivion of being, political and social doctrines of New time Express the same process in their area. Therefore all types of social organization of the New time, as well as all forms of political ideologies (reducible to three major – liberalism, communism and fascism10) represent variations of an alienated society, where, in the end, dominated by das Man, the Central figure of Machenschaft.
But society (in the sense of Gesellschaft), understood as a modern society, and Modern society (unlike premodernists Gemeinschaft, that is, community) has a set of strongly Autonomous criteria, though, and insists on it – and in three major versions (the number of the main political theories). All proposed criteria are not that other, as distorted and alienated, revised das Man om and element Machenschaft’and assistenziali Dasein’.
It starts with the subject. In the philosophy of Modernity it adopted Descartes. Three political theories of Modernity we are dealing with three narrower interpretations of the subject.
Liberals interpretiruya the subject as an individual, Communists, fascists – as a state, nation, or race (national socialism). But Heidegger shows that the subject is a construct of the New time built over forgotten, buried under it Dasein’ohms. Therefore, of philosophical destruction and begins with the dismantling of the subject and breakthrough Dasein’. If we now project this on society (sociology), we see that all three subjects of the political theories of Modernity (liberalism, communism and fascism) are ignoring the people (Volk), which is Dasein. Therefore, degradation in existential sociology must begin with the dismantling of the individual, class, and nation-Statesin order to find in them the basis of a true existential basis subjected to alienation, distortion and oblivion, then there is a people (Volk).
The project of the authentic society: the existential Empire
Here we turn to the projective side of heideggeriana to his idea of what ought to be a society, if Dasein makes a choice in favor of authentic ekzistirovaniya, that is, himself (Selbst). It is sociological and even political program – Entwurf – the Fourth Political Theory.
First of all, everything depends on the decision (Entscheidung), and decision Dasein’om in favor of authentic ekzistirovaniya. But the decision is made not one, not a certain group of people (even of the ruling and influential), not as a philosophical school, but not all together. For the solution in question, there are no procedures, no rules. It is something more. In it Dasein turns to itself, and performs the turn (Kehre), he decides to himself, runs the risk of being. And here Dasein communicates directly with their own limbs, that is, interacts with elements of death. Drawn to death the whole of Dasein completely, but kept this treatment only separate, rare – the only (die Einzelne). They solution and manifests itself, makes itself felt. But accept it they do not themselves. They are able to make it, but not able to make. The decision is made by the people (Volk), but by itself, in a narrow – opticheskom – meaning he’s not able to do so.
Therefore, the project is accepted by authentic companies simultaneously and celokupno people as Dasein’ohms. But he’s expressed is through the only (die Einzelnen) who become its carriers. They are the true rulers of the Empire a New Beginning.
Die Metaphysik des Daseins muss sich nach ihrem innersten Gefüge und vertiefen ausweitern zur Metapolitik “des” geschichtlichen Volkes.11
Metaphysics Dasein’and should be extended in its InterMost structure to metaphysics (particular) historical people.
This means, the transition from philosophy to sociology (society) and politics is a breakthrough in the field of historical. In historical, historiale (das Geschichtliche, and more precisely, das Seynsgeschichtliche), decision Dasein’and acquires its natural scale. A society ruled by das Man, deliberately ahistorical, waitoreke. And even if there are always talking about “history”, they see her as aloof rock as τέχνη as artificial rationale and justification completely alienated care, occupying all the space in the moment. This “story” is nothing more than a fake (antiproteolytic) the rationale of labour. People become truly historical (geschichtliche) only when chooses an authentic existence. But then he is confronted with his finiteness, that is a risk. And this clash has a name – war, the father of things according to Heraclitus. Elites of all political entities – States were formed: the rank of warriors, lords, entering into a personal relationship with death. Philosophers are those who are so fascinated by death and the finitude of existence, making death the main theme of their existence, seeking to penetrate into the depths of being to the very border with nothing. Warriors and philosophers, and poets make being historical, but history is filled with ontological content.In this case, the people become full and saturated. Caring – works, care,affection, mood – becomes a prop inthe Genesisis built to the roots. The people who gained their historical dimension, becoming a people existence. It not only exists, it now is.
For Heidegger and for the Fourth Political Theory is a political and social project. Heidegger writes in “the Black notebooks”:
Das eigentliche, aber fernste Ziel: die geschichtliche Grösse des Volkes in der Erwirkung und Gestaltung der Seinsmächt.
Das nähere Ziel: das Zusichselbstbekommen des Volkes aus seiner Verwurzelung und aus der Übernahme seines Auftrags durch den Staat.
Das nächste Ziel: Schaffung der vorläufige, die Volksgemeinschaft als das Selbst des Volkes.12
The most important, but the distant goal: the historical greatness of the people in the implementation and execution of power of existence.
Closer goal: the establishment of the people themselves from the loss of roots and excessive partisanship in the state.
The closest target: the provisional organization of the national community as Selbst people.
These steps are particularly important if, as in the personal history of Heidegger, the transition to the Fourth Political Theory proceeds, or at least think inside the Third political theory. That is why the aim of near is overcoming “excessive partisanship in government.” The state is the name of das Man and the Third political theory (fascism, nationalism). And the destruction of the state apparatus, as Machenschaft, the first teoreticheskaia Fourth Political Theory. Without it, the people (Volk) as “subject” of history, as Dasein is not detected and identified.
In the broader context of the political systems of Modernity can be paraphrased heideggers the sequence of the following generalized way:
1. the awakening of the people like yourself (Selbst);
2. paving the way through alienated, imposed Modern forms of subjectivity – the individual, class, the state (nation, race), with their parallel (phenomenological) destruction (it depends on what starting position you begin the project of the Fourth Political Theory – from inside the liberal, Communist or nationalist companies);
3. access to the horizon of the great history (die geschichtliche Grösse des Volkes), the entry to the right of the ontological historial finding people in your own life.
The people and its God: religion Selbst
The last thing you should pay attention in the first approximation to the existential sociology, it is a question of religion. For many it can seem like the most problematic in the philosophy of Heidegger and the Fourth Political Theory as a whole.The Heidegger understands the problem of the gods or of God in close connection with the people. He cites the “Black notebooks” of the word Shatov from the “Demons” Dostoevsky:
And who has no people has no God!13
And fully agree with them. The people and God go hand in hand. There is no God without the people. After all, the God who is, creates a person. But the man in existential optics is Dasein, and therefore, the people (Volk). God, thinking about doing, saying, thinking start, creates people. Without the people, outside of the people that start there. And if it is not, and to testify to God, to praise Him, to glorify Him. Therefore, the idea of God out of the minds of the people, individually, will be meaningless – what language, what formulas and in what order would such a speech?!People in theology can be ignored, but that in itself is nothing but the underlying distortion will not result. If religion is alive, if sheexistential, it must be national in the deepest sense of the word.
Heidegger therefore, thinking about the project Wake up people, wrote:
Wagen wir noch einmal die Götter und mit ihnen die Wahrheit des Volkes?14
Do we dare to once more have the gods, and with them the truth of the people?
God (or gods) is the truth of the people (die Wahrheit des Volkes). But it is also his existence, being, which is himself, in his inner source, your identity, your Selbst. No matter whether we are dealing with a polytheistic or monotheistic version recognize if the act of creation or manifestation. The attitude of the people of God deeper these secondary parameters. The people there when he is God. If he decides to be, he decided to have a Lord and, accordingly, to be with God, to belong to him.
In heideggers version concretization of religion is not decisive. More importantly – how alive God is, how powerful his existence, and therefore how They animated the people, to build their historical dimension. Without God, people in General can not be, and about any historiale speech can not go. But the presence of the cult, of rites and institutions is not sufficient. Religion can exist in a world of das Man’. In this case it will be another field concerns – that is political, economic or social authority. In this religion, the God is dying, and when you come purely secular political regimes of Modernity (liberalism, communism and fascism), they are not so much “kill” Him, ascertain how much has already happened death. Therefore, Heidegger refers not to the consequences of, and reasons for faith should venture, to decide. Because God is the death of a person15. He embodies the proportion in which the limits of the thinking of presence of installed strictly and ruthlessly. We become mortals only to Immortals. But ludimila be at this very moment. God creates only what is. But it is Dasein.
The Fourth Political Theory of religion is not a tribute to tradition, it is not just a vestigial trait of the past – especially in the past, we have atheistic Modern. The Fourth Political Theory, the people resolved to have God. And that decision takes itself Dasein, Dasein as a people (Volk). And if the Fourth Political Theory in metaphysics, philosophy and sociology is a revolutionary (conservative-revolutionary), and in the sphere of religion, it should be the same. Therefore, faith is awake to the history of the people is a risky faith in the Living God, Selbst God, in God as the antithesis of his institutionalized simulacrum – the Grand Inquisitor. The Grand Inquisitor Dostoevsky is the title that das Man is in the sphere of religion. Therefore, the religion of the people to be alive and authentic, but if it is religion Selbst.
- A. Schütz , The Phenomenology of the Social World. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1967.
- And when consume, that interprets it in the spirit of Hegel as an artificial joint atomized individuals of the Modern era that he has the slightest not sympathy.
- Heidegger M. Logik als die Frage nach dem’s Wesen der Sprache. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998.
- Heidegger M. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1931 – 1938). Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2014; Idem. Überlegungen VII-IX. (Schwarze Hefte 1938/39). Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2014; Idem. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1939-1941). Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2014.
- Heidegger M. Logik als die Frage nach dem’s Wesen der Sprache. Op. cit. S. 38.
- Heidegger M. Logik als die Frage nach dem’s Wesen der Sprache. Op. cit.
- Destruction or phenomenological destruction, as understood by Heidegger in “Sein und Zeit” (Heidegger M. Sein und Zeit. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1972), there is a room ideas, concept, theories, remarks historical and philosophical context, which, according to Heidegger, there is a specific process of forgetfulness of being, or the abandonment of the Genesis of human history (Seinsgelassenheit).
- Hegel. The phenomenology of the spirit. SPb.: Science, 1992.
- Heidegger M. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1931 – 1938). Op. cit. S. 98.
- Dugin A. G. The Fourth Way. Introduction to the Fourth Political Theory. M.: Academic project, 2014.
- Heidegger M. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1931 – 1938). Op. cit. S. 124.
- Heidegger M. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1931 – 1938). Op. cit. S. 136.
- Dostoevsky, F. M. Demons. M.: World of books, Literature, 2008. S. 221. Elsewhere in “the idiot” Dostoevsky says through the mouth of Prince Myshkin: “Who from his native land refused, and he of his God given” (Dostoevsky Idiot. Part 4. M.: World of books, Literature, 2008. P. 81) In this case, the expression “native land” should also be understood existentially. Heidegger believed the Earth one of the poles of Severity (Geviert), thus revealing that he was metaphysically closer to the Earth (Erde) is with the Russian people and Russia (Russland) in General.
- Heidegger M. Überlegungen II-VI. (Schwarze Hefte 1931 – 1938). Op. cit. S. 183.
- 62 fragment of Heraclitus we read: θάνατοι θνητοί, θνητοὶ θάνατοι, ζῶντες τὸν ἐκείνων θάνατον, τὸν δὲ ἐκείνων βίον τεθνεῶτες. “Mortals are immortal, Immortals mortal; the gods live the death, people die life of the gods.”