The ontology of political nonconformism
Definition of nonconformism
In the political history we are constantly having conspiracies, coups, revolutions, insurrections.
These phenomena can be explained in different ways. You can consider them only as part of a “political technologies” in the constant struggle for power. Marxists see this as the logic of “class struggle”. Other schools – a process of continuous rotation of elites.
The ontological origins of non-conformism
The word “nonconformism” is the particle “non” (“no”) and “conformism” (“assimilation”, “adaptation”, “acceptance”, “lack of resistance”). “Conformist” is the one who adopt standards of socio-political system without opposition or if they change, he adapts own position to changing socio-political norms.
Accordingly, non-conformism is the opposite. Nonconformity there is such socio-political position, which opposes the existing system of things (as policy, and in other social, cultural, and religious spheres). You can talk about the different types of non-conformism – nonconformism religious, ethical, social. First and foremost, we are interested in the political nonconformism. “Nonconformity” within the philosophy of politics we understand is a very wide phenomenon that any form of dissent and protest against the existing currently and in the space of socio-political system.
Non-conformism is impossible without ideology
Non-conformism is always ideological basis. Ideology encompasses different levels – values, philosophical, social, and sometimes religious. This is sometimes overlooked, trying to explain the manifestations of nonconformism simple, natural social reactions. For example, when the oppressed masses find life unbearable to live, they rise up against their oppressors. But they by definition can’t rebel just because they live badly. For the efficiency of the uprising they should have some system of justification, ideology. Only unwillingness to live in a depressed state is not sufficient grounds. The ontological factor of non-conformism is the doctrine, the ideology, the worldview that stand for disobedience, protest, rebellion, revolution.
In the sphere of non-conformism (nonconformism of the ontology) are all forms of social protest – from rebellion of slaves in antiquity, Palace revolutions, to the modern political revolutions or the labor movement.
The alternative and structure
The first step of the ontology of non-conformism is to develop alternatives of direct relevance to the essence of the Political. The nonconformity is clearly and succinctly the process that constitutes the essence of politics. Development of alternatives in the framework of non-conformism starts with an understanding of the large-scale realities associated with the basics of worldview, determining the underlying interests of society and of its components, with a new appeal to the myth of origins and to the ultimate goal of the historical path to the project. For the comprehension leading to the development of the structure of the alternatives should be action aimed at its implementation. Moreover, in contrast to the common definition of the Political, this action is taken more narrowly: it is definitely aimed at the destruction of the existing order. Adoption of the alternatives produces an alternative action that carries a distinct destructive element. The destruction of existing, overthrow it is the most important distinguishing feature of non-conformist policy.
Nonconformity refers to the essence of the Political, reproduces its basic “movement”. But the peculiarity lies in the fact that each face two models of Political, existing, valid and non-existent, possible, and both are presented as an antagonistic reality. Political nonconformity differs in that its choice is not in the framework of common Political, but outside them, beyond them. This choice implies a deep change of paradigm of the Political. Non-conformism can be seen as a limiting case of the Political.
The alternative offered by the non-conformism that comes from potentially different Political structure than the one that exists at the moment. The very Political non-conformism firmly opposed to the existing political system.
There may be a variety of options – from minimal alternative to the maximum.
Here is an example of the minimum the degree of nonconformity: One of the sons of the king (leader) has not got the power, power – according to the custom of this society, should go to the eldest son, and he’s younger, but for whatever circumstances and reasons, seeks to take the throne. The applicant did not want to change neither the existing system of beliefs, nor the social life – he needs only personal power. He arranges for the coup of the Palace party with a purpose, say, to poison the elder brother who is in line for the throne. Here the alternatives are minimal and only associated with the personality of the applicant while maintaining the basic parameters of the Political.
However, in the real history of even such a simple (almost psychological) case was never presented and understood in a prosaic transparent way, where the selfish motivation of the applicant would be decisive (and only) factor. “Officially” the scenario of conspiracy of the younger brother against the older could not be recognized as legitimate. Every time this simple situation was accompanied by additional General factors. For example, the Royal brother-conspirator in their actions, they tried to operands of those people in society who – in the same way were deprived of their inheritance. The social base and support it could serve minorate the younger children of aristocratic families. When the synthesis was realized, it passed into the status of a political non-conformism and represented the interests of minorate against primogeniture, and this, in turn, directly affected the social structure and traditions.
In this simplest political (and psychological) action as a fratricide for the throne, we are confronted with the beginnings of a far-reaching political program with the primary manifestations of the alternatives, and political nonconformity.
If the plot ends well for its organizer, the younger brother can abandon generalizations and their “revolutionary” initiatives (approval of minorate”), thereby eliminating the Nonconformance dimension. But in certain cases it may be continued in full accordance with mythological stories about the “exploits of the youngest son”, which is sometimes reflected in political reforms.
The ideological moment in the nonconformity
Historically found this kind of radical non-conformism, in which people of certain circles, religions, groups, social classes come to the assertion that the entire Political system, including the traditional social institutions that is not true and is subject to abolition.
Against the existing system they put their own alternative, nonconforming Political system. From the moment when this alternative is formulated, and as long as it is not realized in practice, while keeping the old system, we are dealing with a full-fledged ontology of political nonconformism.
Considering the evolution of specific political regimes – and especially their turning points (revolutions, coups, revolts, overthrow of dynasties, etc.), we see that the responsible for change the forces you can select both minimum and maximum nonconformity. However, always we are dealing with ideological alternative either elaborated and developed, in the case of global social revolution, or, on the contrary, rudimentary, in the case of an ordinary Palace coup. If an ideological alternative is fully developed, so it is in itself and acts as the historical cause of political transformation (respectively, the forces that caused it to life are internal and integral to the ideological component of this alternative). If ideological moment is in a rudimentary degree, then most likely it is nothing more than a cover for the satisfaction of some private interests (i.e. the forces that caused such a political event, are external and accidental in relation to the bearers of an ideological project or a substitute).
A sacral society is archetypal, exemplary, paradigmatic precisely because it contains the fullness of the sacred elements, reducerea that, it is easy to rest, nesakralnaya or antisocially political and social model. – From a always easy to bring the private and excess – deficiency. That’s why about the ontology of non-conformism in the paradigmatic sense, one can speak of alternative sacredness.
An alternative sacrality – a key concept to clarify the essence of the ontology of non-conformism. Since the Political in a traditional society is sacred, that the existing system was considered to be consecrated again. Even in theory, to detach the system from its sacred origins to man, the Tradition is extremely difficult, and in order to formulate nonconforming political model leading to the revolution, uprising or coup, it was necessary to push the concept, comparable in its sacredness with what existed in the moment.
The revolution of Buddhism
For example, if the caste system has traditionally been based on understanding spiritual differences in the structure of the Godhead, the alternative, denying the caste system was justified through a different understanding of the divine nature. This is what we find in Buddhism, which is toward the outside of the sacred context was a real revolution. Buddhism starts with the fact that claims: “your – Hindu – deity concepts inappropriately”. “Your Gods,” says the Buddha, referring by default to the supporters of Hinduism, among whom he lived and preached – are not free of higher beings, but the mechanical elements of the wheel of samsara, the wheel of reincarnation; by and large, they spin like a squirrel in the wheel of samsara, along with worms, animals, pigs, people, dogs, brahmanas, and all this is not that other, as the cycle of reincarnations”. Buddhism denies not just the socio-political system of Hindu castes, he denies the Hindu view of the nature of the Godhead on the nature and structure of the gods (and therefore people). Here contains the source of the birth of the religious community of the Sangha (monastic radical type), which is a new Hindu society, social element, leading under certain circumstances to political transformations such, as the reforms of king Ashoka.
Taoists, Gnostics and believers, drawing on the insurgent mob
In a similar vein, we can give a more in-depth assessment of many historical events. For example, the peasant revolt of “yellow bandages” in China 184-204 years. Usually it is described as the revolt of the masses have risen against the oppression of the exploiters, government officials, government levies, etc. Social injustice, hunger, oppression and spontaneous reaction to its lower social strata of China are seen as the main driving forces behind social unrest. This is absolutely correct on the level of social phenomenology. At the level of ontology of non-conformism is more important than another: the revolt of “yellow bandages” was a coordinated event held Taoists, esoteric Chinese traditions.
Another example is the popular uprising in Europe – from the French Waldensians and Czech taborites to English Ranters and Luddites. In all cases we are dealing with a social manifestation of some mystical sects of a Gnostic persuasion, having more or less well-developed theology, an alternative to the official Church.
In all these cases, through social unrest made itself felt alternative models of understanding the sacred. Therefore, in each revolution there are spiritual, religious, or, if anything, the religious aspects.
In Russian history one can cite the example of the peasant war of Stepan Razin (1670-1671) and Pugachev (1773 -1775), which has largely been associated with the radical old believers sect of the Cossacks and peasantry. Both Pugachev and Razin were believers, and relied not just on the protest of the oppressed masses, but the idea of “the good Kingdom” and “true faith”, which was to succeed Babylon, which became the Russian Empire of the Romanovs after the Church split. The theme of “Royal descent” of Pugachev fits perfectly into the context of “alternative sacredness”, which, on the one hand, gives the dynastic upheavals, ideological character, and the other – loads of social and religious revolt mythological pseudo-dynastic component.
Alternative sacredness in Russian Bolshevism
We see, therefore, that the basis of social revolution lies some spiritual, mystical, religious ideology.
The most perceptive of historians (such as Mikhail agurskii, and Alexander Etkind) applied this approach to the study of the great October Revolution, received on this basis, many interesting and unexpected insights.
Agurskii, and Etkind from different points of view, but equally clearly show that the “parallel ideology” (i.e. “sanctification”) of the rationalist and social Bolshevik revolution was a whole range of irrational currents in Russian sectarianism (as the common people, and intellectuals) than actively interested in Lenin and Bonch-Bruevich (there are historical documents showing that the first gave the second instruction to explore the possibility of connecting Russian sectarians to the political struggle and propaganda among them the Communist ideology), and Trotsky, Bogdanov and many other Bolsheviks. Itself the Bolshevik ambition to build a “Paradise on earth” was an expression of national sectarian heterodox Christian impulse. According to the structure of the first Communist cells were direct analogues of the eschatological sects, it is a radical militant wing.
The word “revolution” – in Latin “return”, “rotation” – were considered in this vein as a “return to basics”, a magical transformation of the world, returning from an alienated state to the primordial abundance.
Another historian Norman Cohn explored in turn, mystical and eschatological component to the two political currents – Russian Bolshevism and German national socialism.
But if the Nazi myth appeals to the magic of reality (the myth of the Aryan race of German supermen”) were obvious, the interpretation of “scientific Marxism” on Russian soil as a focus of national eschatological sects became for many a revelation.
The phenomenon of Tantrism
Describe the paradigmatic model of an alternative of the sacred.
Are based on India, since the caste system developed there very carefully; it is a continuous multi-millennial tradition, in which the ratio of caste, political, religious, aesthetic, economic aspects is studied and described.
In India there was a tradition called Tantrism, the teachings of Tantra. Indian society is so massive that includes a variety of flow, without opposing them to each other.
The teachings of Tantra, despite some radical aspects that are included in the General context of Hindu civilization and is regarded as one of the full possibilities of the spiritual path. India is guided by the principle not of “either-or” but “both-and”.
Tantrism is sometimes called the “fifth Veda” along with four traditional.
Tantra is multi-faceted and profound direction. We have an understanding of it is somewhat diminished: since tantric ritual operates with the sacralization of the erotic energies, today, when people talk about Tantra, referring to the sexual aspect of it, although this flow is much wider.
Tantric direction in Hinduism has proposed a revolutionary view of the system of the caste society, but unlike Buddhism, it did not oppose the Orthodox tradition, but integrated into it, remained within it. Having considered the tantric concept of “hierarchy dedicated” (its Sanskrit name – “Kaula”, literally “chain”), you can get an idea of what the ontology of non-conformism in its paradigmatic aspect.
Hindu society recognizes three main castes plus the Sudras and other vnekastovyh education, not having their own sacred identity. From the point of view of the sacred Hindu, brahmin created from pure light; kṣatriya – out light, painted fire; the Vaisya light, which mingled with the fire and smoke; and the Sudra – from clean smoke. Thus, we are dealing with a hierarchy where social gradation strictly correspond to qualitative levels of life. In such a situation for Hindus, easy to answer the question: why Brahman is better than a Kshatriya?Because the light from which created his nature, cleaner”. The same is true for other castes. Such a strict correlation with caste-social political functions of the inner nature of people is the optimal example of a complete logic of caste society.
Perpendicular hierarchy of Tantra
Tantric chain, the “Kaula”, for its part, offers a completely different vision of the sacred hierarchy. Tantrika founded what can be called “perpendicular hierarchy».
Because tantric lived in a caste society, then, of course, all of them from birth belonged to any of the castes, i.e., were either brāhmaṇas or kṣatriyas or the vaiśyas, or śūdras. However, tantric argued that the caste system is only potential as a human person, what is Brahman created out of pure light only in potency, that it was his “bill”, his “valuable paper,” his “credit” that he can cash out (to realize, to turn into reality), and may not be cashed. If Brahman does not take any steps in the “cashing in” “securities” of his inner nature, he nevertheless can perform an important social function in Hindu society. It will remain a complete ignoramus when it comes to spiritual reality. We can say that the representative of each caste there is a specific legacy – for example, a chest with some valuable content. The quality of the chest and its contents in the case of each caste is different. All the chests are locked. The task of each person – irrespective of caste – is to find the key and open the chest.When a person acts in accordance with the spirit of Tradition, he builds his life by submitting to this task is to find the key to nature and to reveal the heritage of the inner being, applying for appointment inherited treasures. But many people ignore this task, and don’t make an effort, neither the key search, nor in the development of the treasure. The chest remains unopened – I admire him, proud of him, praise even speculate, but its contents remain unknown even to the owner.
Tantrika, therefore, recognize the existence of caste heritage and its quality disparity, but focus on the fundamental gap that exists between the possible and the actual; the focus is how exactly implements the objective of the heritage of each person and implements it if at all.
Tantric aim – straight path, i.e. the full and urgent implementation of what is laid as a promise in the caste system, and the implementation must take place in this life without waiting for another incarnation. Tantrika think that a person needs to break through to the center of the absolute, to Genesis, to the “Advaita” (oneness) here and now, in this life, not expecting a long chain of reincarnation. The specifics of implementing this radical problem creates a new hierarchy – no hierarchy possible (as the traditional caste system), but the hierarchy is valid (or initiatic hierarchy).
Three degrees of the initiatic hierarchy
In the hierarchy of Tantra there are three categories: “Pashu” – “man-animal”, “virya” – “hero” (or “man”) and “Divya” – “deity”. Internal hierarchy, “Kaula”, consisting of three steps was superimposed on the existing caste system, not cancelling it. Tantrika not questioned the social functions of the traditional castes, and consequently, fully recognized the legitimacy and sacredness of Hinduism. But they duplicated the hierarchy of the external sacredness – the sacredness of domestic hierarchy, which was based on the experimental fact of realization of the absolute. Potentially Brahman was a direct manifestation of the deity and Brahman consciousness was potentially one with the consciousness of first principle. This assertion was enough to justify the social caste system and respect for the brahmanas dominant role in it. But, nevertheless, the particular Brahman, the course fully meets these high demands in very rare cases, and very often they do not answer, disease in the worship and offerings of the lower castes.
Tantrika based his initiatic hierarchy not on what potentially is representative of a particular caste, but that he is important, really, really. Thus, representative of any of the cast – even the śūdra could take in tantric hierarchy the highest position. In this system, the brahmin, the highest caste, could stand on stage “Pasha”, “animal”. In this society he continued to perform his functions as Brahman, and in the hierarchy of “Kaula” was considered something of a laborer, novice, servant. Exactly the same “animal” could act and Kshatriya, the warrior, despite the wealth, strength, courage, valor etc.On the other hand, the realization of the absolute through mystical path of Tantra can reach a representative of the lowest caste – Sudra so could theoretically become a “hero” (“virya”, the second stage) and “Divya” (the third stage), realizing in himself the fullness of deity.
Thus, in Tantra there is a “parallel hierarchy”within which clearly distinguished between the social functions in accordance with the sacred nature of a particular caste and the reality experienced the realization of the highest spiritual States. Tantrica did not oppose the caste system, considering that the aim of all institutions – the tantric and caste is one: implementation of the Godhead, the absolute, the nondual fusion with the first elements (this doctrine is called in Hinduism the “realization of the Supreme identity”). But “highest identity” in the usual caste system must be implementedgradually and systematically. In tantric hierarchy the idea was to implement it immediately, for this life, not to postpone it for “later”.
Esotericism and esoterism
Tantric hierarchy is a classic example of what is called “esoteric” or “initiatory society”. Esoterism is the inner side of spiritual tradition. Initiation also called a system of specific exercises and rituals by which man enters into the esoteric realm of reality and begins to live in it and act. The concept of “esoteric organization” and “initiatic organization” are synonyms.
There is also the term “exoterism” – it describes the structure of the external sacredness. “Ezo” in Greek means “inside”, “Exo” – “outside”. The structure of the sacred society of Hinduism is itself exoteric Institute, while remaining quite sacred. The tantric structure of the hierarchy is the esoteric hierarchy.
Tantrism gives us a paradigmatic model of an alternative of the sacred, connected with esotericism and integrated into the overall system a full-fledged caste society.
It should be particularly emphasized that in this case we are not talking about the rejection of the caste system in General. Tantrika not questioning the existing sacredness, do not propose to overthrow it. Their hierarchy, they only record the gap between potential and actual quality of the sacred. This is not directly projected onto the Political system does not become in full sense of the word political alternative. This is “parallel sacredness”that is, remain in their framework, not only does not undermine the existing system, but, on the contrary, it strengthens and supports – indeed, insisting on the mainstreaming potential, it additionally sacralize the institution of castes, watching his ontological consistency. Nevertheless, it is of the “parallel sacredness” of esotericism and initiatory societies, and more precisely, of fixed here the gap is born the ontology of political nonconformism – the moment when the Supplement becomes the opposition, “complementarity” – the “opposition”.
Structure of European Freemasonry
A similar system perpendicular hierarchy” we find in the structures of the most secret societies. For example, in Masonic lodges, which are the direct analogue of the esoteric and initiatic organizations of the East. In these lodges could participate as aristocrats – until priests and members of Royal families and commoners. Social, caste differences were abolished here, the commoners in the initiatic hierarchy could take a higher degree, than representatives of noble estates. The Masonic hierarchy – as well as the tantric Kaula” – had three levels: “the apprentice”, “journeyman” (“comrade”) and “master”. Each degree of initiation had developed their own rituals. At the dedication of the degree of “master,” the neophyte was put in a coffin from which he in the course of ritual was raised. It symbolized the attainment of “divine” quality (compare with the tantric “Divya”). And just as in the initiatic organization of Tantra, in Masonic lodges the “master” could be a shoemaker, and a “student” or “apprentice” (“friend”) – a prominent aristocrat.
In the Masonic structure in the framework of the European companies we are dealing with the same system as in the case of Tantrism within the Hindu society.
When parallel hierarchies are alternative
In the normal case in the traditional society there is exoteric sacral system and the parallel system of esoteric – too sacred, but alternative hierarchy is based on a different value base.
Revolution, both social and religious – usually ripen in secret societies of the esoteric type. In structure they are the best matrix to develop a model of alternative Political, stemming from a common spiritual alternative parallel hierarchies – the hierarchy of esotericism.
Between the two systems of sacred – esoteric and exoteric (and corresponding hierarchies) – there is a certain balance. A clear understanding of the nature of social in a normal case makes both hierarchies to recognize the legitimacy of each other, strictly delimiting its powers as soon as esotericism has put its principles are parallel to esoterismo, but opposing ourselves to him, he at the same moment ceases to be the actual esoterism and becomes esoterismo himself, making room for a new parallel hierarchies, the new esotericism.
The opposite is true: as soon as esoterism claim universality and oppresses parallel hierarchy – up to eradicate them, he puts them on the defensive, to change his shape and take antiastenicescoe position. Here we can draw an important conclusion: two parallel sacredness – esoterism and esotericism – be alternativewhen the balance between them is disturbed, i.e. in a critical situation; it is the disturbance of this balance and of the principle of complementarity gives the parallel hierarchies revolutionary into a matrix of non-conformism, and political nonconformity.
The dualistic model of Gnosticism
Give other examples of parallel hierarchies in the religious sphere.
At the dawn of Christianity was extremely common “Gnosticism”, a special direction, and later firmly rejected by Christian Orthodoxy.
The Gnostics evolved a cosmogony dualistic sense, which clarifies many of the typology of the two species of the sacred. They argued that there is not one principle, not one deity, but two. Moreover, the deity who created this world, the evil deity, the usurper, “the evil demiurge.”
According to Gnosticism, the whole world is divided into possession of this “evil God”, which includes elements, people, angels, animals, etc., and an exclusive, rare Islands, selected different – distant and inaccessible – “good God”. The Gnostics believed his hierarchy the “hierarchy of light”, and the world – including its sacred institutions – the “hierarchies of darkness.” It is significant that the Gnostics we meet with the three stages of initiation, just as the tantric followers, Freemasons, etc.: “sarkic” (“carnal”, a direct analogue of the “Pasha”, “animal” tantric “Kaula”), “psyche” (“soul”, analogous to “virya”) and pneumatic (“spiritual”, similar to “Divya”). Level of the hierarchy is achieved as soon as the person comes out from under the burden of dark hierarchies.
In this dualistic picture of the world we see is already quite a complete model alternative of the sacred, elevated to the status of the main religious dogmas. Gnosticism, as well as other similar teachings – Manichaeism, bogomilism, the doctrine of the Cathars etc. – represents the transitional stage when the esoteric dimension begins to realize himself as aptitute, not the addition of exoteric.
In principle something similar we see in Buddhism (especially early and in the so-called “little chariot”, the “Hinayana”). There’s also a hierarchy of exoteric Hinduism brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra was denied, and instead itis her and not together with her as the tantric followers) asserted a different hierarchy actually Buddhism – from simple believers through the monks (members of the original Sangha) to Bodhisattvas and Buddhas.
The Gnostics based on the opposition of the hierarchy a cosmogony, by associating each of them with a separate “creation”: the carnal creation, “worlds of darkness” correspond to the normal hierarchy, and “the bright creation” (“beyond worlds”) – the Gnostic hierarchy. Every creation has its own “God” which stands at the head of the hierarchy. The “dark hierarchy” is “evil demiurge”, “the devil”, “protivanov”, and “the hierarchy of light” – “the true God”. In the Gnostic societies such as we meet with the complete and full model of the nonconformity, which may be limited to the religious sphere, but it can be extended to politics, social structure, social system. The Gnostic doctrine is the essence of the paradigm revolution.
It is very important the name “Gnostics”. In addition to possessing the highest knowledge, it points to the fact that those who are “knowledgeable”, suffered a crucial fact: environment, social structure, religious and political system established a hierarchy based on the principle of “substitution”, only posing as something natural, and in fact, are the fruit of usurpation, negative delusions, willful arbitrariness. So in Gnostic circles is issued for a critical ontology of nonconformity the idea of an “alternative world” about the fact that the world is not only not absolute, but can (and should) be replaced by another – the best and true. Alternative sacredness in such an aggressive manner challenges the existing sacredness, denouncing it as “pseudosocialist” as the product of usurpation and forgery.
The Gnostics, therefore, are representative of “social criticism” on a cosmic level: they “know” about the malicious cunning, which is based on the Cosmo-social reality, “the old order”, expose it and suggest your own tools in order to carry out an eschatological revolution, called them “achievement of all achievements”.
In this spirit, the Gnostics interpreted the Christian doctrine, concentrating many of its positions, interpreting in nonconforming-revolutionary spirit of those moments that were in tune. In certain cases it came to creating its own kvazihristianskogo Scriptures or revision of the canons.
From gnosis to socialism
It is not surprising that Gnosticism was interesting to many members of the social revolutionary movements of recent centuries – in particular, Karl Marx, Auguste Louis Blanqui, etc.
Historically, the revolutionaries of the New time have been in a similar situation with the early Christian Gnostics or the ancient Buddhists. The proponents of the traditional political regimes in XVIII – XIX centuries to confirm its eligibility systems relied on their sacredness, predstavlennosti. They pointed to the fact that private property is a sacred monarchical state given by God, and religious worship is the prerogative of Catholic priests. All this, from the point of view of the conservatives, naturally flowed from the order of things and traditions.In response, Forms and other nonconformists objected: Yes, it’s a tradition, a predetermination, but they Express the regularities of only one of the possible worlds, moreover, it is not the best but the worst, based on the usurpation of social and economic power by parasitic exploitative elements. Before Marx and Engels put these sentiments in a scientific, dry formulation of socialist theory they existed in the form of “utopian” systems, where there is a clear overlap with Gnosticism, eschatology, and mysticism.
In fact, the cells of the revolutionaries was built on the principle of the Gnostic alternative hierarchy .
Ontology of non-conformism in early Christianity
Early Christianity at the initial stage of development, i.e., before Constantine and the beginning of the era of the Ecumenical councils, as a whole was an esoteric, initiatic society, in which ontological nonconformity was fully present.
Christianity in this period developed in a religious context of Judaism and the political and social context of the Roman-Greek culture. The famous words of St. Paul “there is neither Jew nor Hellene” are actually a direct challenge to both of these contexts, which – each in their own field – religiously or politically claim universality.
Judaism argued and defended the sacredness inherent in the religious sphere, Rome, putting an emphasis on the political and social cult. Christianity challenged and one the other, offering its own alternative, the revolutionary answer to the standards of Judaism, and the socio-political principles of pagan Rome.
In both cases, Christian nonconformism was still partial. The Christian community, the early Church resisted Roman socio-political sacredness that concerned the cult of the Emperor, the bringing of blood sacrifices, etc, but otherwise it recognized the legitimacy of Rome as a universal Empire, and many of the legal elements of the Roman way of life. This is why the early Christians were willing to serve in the Roman army, and were some of the best fighters (they were helped in this by a heroic contempt for death), but they steadfastly refused to give divine honours to the Emperor.
To the Judaic tradition, from which Christianity, in a sense, was equally ambivalent. Christians, recognizing the “old Testament”, claimed that with Christ came a new era, the era of grace (the time of the “New Testament”) which completes and overcomes the basic standards of the era law (the time of the “old Testament”). But Christians recognized many of the elements of the Jewish sacredness.
Thus, in religious and in political terms, the early Christians acted as initiatic organization with a moderately revolutionary wing, while having its own ontology in the field of religious and socio-political sacred.
The emerging Orthodox Christianity was not as revolutionary as some other spiritual currents of the time, for example, Essene or seletskoe direction in Judaism, or Gnosticism in the Hellenic-Jewish context, Manichaeism, etc. But it so happened that historically it was Christianity that prevailed among other nonconforming exercises, in comparison with the established models of religious and “civilian” of the sacred at the time.
The most important turning point in the history of Christianity happened in VI century AD when the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great first stopped the persecution of Christians, then he converted to Christianity. Since Christianity was adopted in the Empire as a standard of their own sacredness, the former three hundred years before alternative. This sacredness in General terms, entrenched for centuries, and the ontology of non-conformism within the Christian societies now began to re-emerge in the context of the denial of the main points already new Christian sacredness (as happened in the case of bogomils, Albigenses, Cathars, Waldensians, etc.).
Non-conformism in Islam
In Islam there is an external (exoteric) sacredness – originally embodied in the political structure of an Islamic Caliphate and regulations recorded in the Sunnah.
Sunnah comprehensively describes the norm of the external sacredness of ritual, social, political, and economic requirements that must be followed by all Muslims. Within Sunni Islam there are 4 traditional jurisprudential schools. This is the Hanafi, malecite, shaafa’is and hanbalis (Jafari – the fifth common madhhab relating to Shiism). They vary somewhat among themselves on the interpretation of certain religious principles. There is also a difference in relation to Islamic esotericism. Softest position is shared by Hanafi and Shafi’i, freely allowing the integration of Islam in some local cults and rituals and the Islamic esoteric directions of Sufism. The Hanbali for Sunnis adhere to the most rigid literal interpretation of the Sunnah differ with the radical rejection of all that this letter is not the same (so the hanbalis have a negative attitude to Islamic esotericism). In the eighteenth century is not without Protestant influence from the British agents operating in the Islamic world, from the Hanbali madhab, is common in Saudi Arabia, spun off an even more radical and uncompromising direction, denying any deviation from the literal interpretation of the Koran and the Sunnah – Wahhabism.
An esoteric branch of Islam, exactly the same Tantrism in Hinduism, Gnosticism in Christianity, Kabbalah in Judaism, Hermeticism, the order of chivalry and Freemasonry in Catholicism, etc., is Sufism. Sufism – the inner, Islam, initiatic direction within the framework of Islam.
Here we are faced with a set of beliefs characteristic of any esoteric organization. If the Sunnah is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, the Sufis made of violation of this prohibition, particular, paradoxical initiatory ritual.
And it is in that tradition, where categorically, under pain of death, forbidden to drink alcohol. It’s not just the indifference to the sacred ban. – The Sufis are violating sacred rules, whose sanctity is quite recognized in order to realize an even higher level of the sacred. Some researchers call such practices “sacred lawlessness” (“sacred anomie”).
In Islam very strictly adhered to the principle of monotheism, a radical rejection of “kufr” – “giving God associates”, hence a strict ban on any image and, in particular, on the use to people the divine attributes – all designed to emphasize the fundamental remoteness of the deity of Allah from the world, their lack of comparability. Thus Sufism, in contrast, tend to emphasize intimacy man towards the deity. Hence typical of Sufi poetry in the name of God the friend”, “lover” in the spirit of love poetry. In the most extreme cases, some Sufis came to a direct Declaration of their own personal unity with the deity – so, the famous Sufi al-Hallaj was executed by the mullahs because in the mystical delight cried out “Ana al-Haqq”, i.e. “I am”, which was seen as an assertion of his own divinity, since in Islam “al-Haqq”, “true” means one of the names of God.
Although in most cases, Sufism remains within the framework of Islamic Orthodoxy, sometimes takes her into a certain conflict. This friction between the two types of sacredness, only two species of righteousness, foreign and domestic. Such a conflict could be provoked on the part of the extreme Sufis, frankly beyond external religion that opposes your way of the way of the majority, Orthodoxy, but it may come from mill esoterism that we see in the case hanbalischool madhab in Sunni Islam – and especially in Wahhabism, which are distinguished by extreme intolerance not only against Sufism, but in respect of those cult items that are easily recognized in other, more moderate Sunni madhhab.
Esotericism of the Shia and “the light of Imamate
Occupies a special place in this picture Shia.
Shia is a brand of Islam that is intermediate between strict Sunni Islam and Sufism. Shiism can be called a kind of “exoteric esotericism” or “esoteric exoterism”. It is very reminiscent of the Christian tradition that was originally esoteric, and retained some features of initiatic organizations, even while becoming a globally recognized exoteric religion.
Shi’ism was initially distributed primarily among the peoples of Indo-European origin and of some minority ethnic groups, while the Sunni Islam mainly among the Semites – Arabs.
Shiism is the official religion of Iran, many of the elements of Shiism, despite the fact that they are Islamic, mixed with Zoroastrian tradition: the synthesis of Islam and pre-Islamic beliefs of Ancient Iran offered in their esoteric doctrine of the great Sufi Yahya Shihabuddin, Sohravardi.
According to Shiism, there is an external hierarchy in which Mohammad, as the “last prophet “seal of the prophets” and “legislator”, is much taller than his son-in-law Ali, which is no more than one of his followers and caliphs (“deputies”), along with others, and internal hierarchy, where Ali, by contrast, has the highest status as it is considered the “seal of commentators”, i.e. the highest authority in the comprehension and adequate assimilation of what was revealed to Muhammad. In esotericism this pair is swapped – secret interpretation is above the formal proclamation, although not opposed to one another, but complements it. The question of whether someone who complements decided in the Islamic esoterism and esotericism in different ways.
Ali is the first of the imams, and this line was continued by his direct descendants. In this case, the relationship is considered, however, mystical and spiritual connection, and blood is passed a special secret substance “of the light of Imamate”. Following Ali the Imams are also “seals of interpretation” and continue the inner tradition, as a guarantee of its authenticity and continuity. The last Imam (12th in ordinary Shiites and the 7th of the Ismailis) is considered “hidden”, “secret”. External continuity is interrupted and begins the era of “concealment” – “gaiba” in Arabic. During this period, the Imam is in the world secretly (similar to “the secret of the righteous,” in Eastern Christianity). This concept of “secret presence” is the Foundation of any esotericism. It is believed that the “secret Imam” – or “man-time”, “mardi-zaman” in Persian – is avoiding the natural aging process, staying young forever.
In the end times before the last judgment, which Muslims believe to be on a par with Jews and Christians, the “hidden Imam” will come again in the world. It would be a sign of the imminent end of the world.
The importance of theology for understanding of current Islamic politics
It is significant that the Islamic revolution of 1978 in Iran under the leadership of Imam Khomeini was held under the banner of the new Shiite claims of sacredness. Khomeini proclaimed that “the twelfth Imam returns,” that “he personally communicating with us in a special telepathic way.” The idea of socio-political revolt against the government’s Pro-American dictatorship of the Shah had, therefore, a mystical religious overtones, is directly linked with the ontology of non-conformism.
An example of the Iranian revolution shows how the esoteric reality can turn into direct socio-political phenomenon, justify and predostavlyat it.
Political history of the Islamic world is completely incomprehensible, if not to take into account the specifics of each sects of Islam.
Thus, the history of the division of Muslims into Sunnis and Shiites had a dual purpose – dogmatic religious and purely political – military dispute between the supporters of Ali as the legitimate ruler of the Muslim Ummah and supporters of Osman bin Yazid, with his hand laid claim to leadership of the Caliphate. The death of Ali, and later the death of his two sons – the second and third imams, Hasan and Husain at the hands of their political opponents formed the basis of the Shiite tradition, and to a large extent, most of Shiite metaphysics.
The Shiite tradition in the center of his mystical experience believed that is martyrdom, a sacred suffering on the side of the underdog, and honors the sacred pain. This also brings it closer to Christianity. Politics and religion are inextricably linked: a political event is perceived in religious terms, the differences or similarities in the dogmas and interpretations lead to real political consequences.
All this must be considered, considering as the previous periods of the political history of Muslims and current events. As soon as we start talking about the political aspect of Islam, we must refer to features of sacred structures in the Islamic society to find out at least the most common their base – line potential or actual faults, the theological underpinnings of the dispute between the sects, mazhabs, Sufi orders or extreme sects.
Iran – a Shiite state, as well as modern Azerbaijan. In other Islamic countries dominated by Sunni Islam. In some Sunni countries, power is concentrated in the hands of other areas. Thus, modern Syria is controlled by the Alawite clan and the Ismaili and Shia minority, ruling over Sunni Syria. Shia-strong Druze in Lebanon. In Iraq, the Shiites make up the majority of the population, for a long time subordinate to the Sunni minority. Afghanistan and Libya are ruled by the representatives of the Sufi orders, actively participating in the political history of the peoples of the States of Central Asia, the Middle East.
In the government of modern Turkey (mostly Sunni, although formally a secular country) since Kemal Ataturk and his followers strongly influenced polumusulmanskoy-poloidally esoteric sect “dönmeh”, “sabbatismos” followers Sabbatai Zevi (XVII), initially posing as “Messiah” (“Jewish Messiah”), but then under pressure from the Turkish Sultan who converted to Islam, and became the founder of special mystical-Kabbalistic cult.
Sufism is traditionally followed in the Caucasus, especially in Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Kabarda, Circassian among peoples and Lezgins. It is significant that almost the entire population of Chechnya belongs to one or another Sufi order. This is the rare case where Sufism is prevalent in almost all of an ethnic community. Sufi was the historical Imam Shamil, raised in the Caucasus, a strong anti-Russian movement. Members of the order of Nakshbandiya Kadiria and actively participated in determining the political behavior of the Caucasian peoples, at different periods tending to the world, to the insurgency.
During the first Chechen campaign on TV has repeatedly shown a ritual circular dance of the Chechens, ceremonies with zakidyvaniem head, the practice of “dhikr” – continually repeating the name “Allah”. All these are typical features of Sufism, Islamic initiatic organizations.
For the peoples of the Caucasus – hold the majority of the Shafi’i madhhab or malakanskogo tolerant related to Sufism is totally alien not only to contemporary Wahhabism, but also more moderate Hanbali mazhab. Not only historically distant but conceptually hostile. The spread in the Caucasus Wahhabism, thus, should not be viewed as a product of natural evolution of traditional Islam, typical of these ethnic communities, but as an entirely artificial political and religious implantation of external origin.
Saudi Arabia – on the contrary, the Wahhabi country, where traditionally and historically dominated the exoteric the radical Sunni Islam: Hanbali madhhab, from which came the even more radical, it is heretical Wahhabi sect. Within the Islamic world, Saudi Arabia is at the opposite pole of Iran. These two States represent the two extreme metaphysical, theological, dogmatic and socio-political realities of the Islamic world.
Saudi Arabia supports the Sunni radical movement in the world, the Wahhabis in the Caucasus (or, more broadly, in Russia, Taliban in Afghanistan, “the Muslim brotherhood” in Egypt, “Islamic front” in Algeria etc. Iran limits its support to areas of the Shiite population, as well as some Sufi modes – Tajik wing of the Afghans, the Syrian regime (where the head are alawites), Lebanese and Palestinian Hezbollah, etc.
These examples clearly show how the knowledge of the internal structure of religious systems is at first glance far from a specific policy helps to adequately understand the most relevant and pressing issues.
“Solitary man” de Sade and Lautreamont
Since the eighteenth century, and particularly in the nineteenth century, there emerged the socio-political direction, aiming at the liberation of the self from the shackles of the system. This is a modern edition of a radical nonconformism. According to this concept, which is often referred to as “anarchism” (or “General theory of revolt”), man must work in General from all institutions, sacred and political, to throw off the burden of the existing policy and to assert his own will in spite of all constraints.
One of the first and most consistent of the heralds of this theory was the Marquis de Sade, known more for his pornographic texts and lent its name to a severe form of sexual perversion.
Actually, de Sade was an astute philosopher and politician, for his controversial erotic works only illustrate some of the ideological considerations. In particular, it to the logical limit developed the principle of personal sovereignty –. how to behave as a man who does not have any externally imposed obligations, social attachment and other links with the sacred grounds of the Political. In this interpretation the works of de Sade are represented by the illustration of the position of a sovereign person, which is freed from all Political.
There is a wonderful study of the French philosopher Georges Bataille, one of the modern theorists of the non-conformist, “Sovereign man de Sade,” where he treats of de Sade as a profound political thinker, who 200 years before the twentieth century avant-garde expressed and described the phenomenology of the Autonomous individual, freed from external obligation.
- Bataille and the French literary critic Henri Blanchot insisted on the value of the paradigmatic texts of the Marquis de Sade for modern Western political discourse.
In our context, the ideas of de Sade from the point of view of the concept of ontological alternatives, as de Sade in his writings – albeit in a somewhat caricatured form – plays a tantric motifs. One of the heroes of the Garden quite in the spirit of Gnostic teachings proclaims that the world in which we live, created the “evil deity”, so here “everyone is imperfect”, and if we are to confront this evil world even more evil – evil against him– then we will be able to rise above all limits. Through the destruction of excess and debauchery, through the Commission of the most horrible and unimaginable crimes can be a real “righteous”. But the righteous not the external common (cool) sacredness, and sacredness of genuine, alive and transformed.
Another author, who, in the nineteenth century developed an intuition for the sovereign, was the count of Lautréamont.
Lautréamont, who died in twenty-four years, wrote only one work, “Les chants de maldoror’ (with the exception of scattered aphorisms – “Poesie”, later collected in the collection), where the main character – Maldoror – the only task was “to create an absolute evil”, to overcome all taboos, to break through to higher total freedom. Have Maldoror there goal is to defeat the Creator. Lautréamont never speaks of God, he says it is about the Creator. Like the ancient Gnosticism and partly de Sade, Lautréamont sees “the Creator” our world is essentially an evil creature, and builds a war with him to the rank of the highest virtues. But to break through to a new sacredness Maldoror, it is necessary to overturn the old sacredness of the “evil demiurge.” This paradoxical lesson and maldoror is engaged throughout all six songs.
The Titanic and the figure of the anarcho
This direction is called«the Titanic”. In Greek mythology there is a story about the ancient titans, brothers of the gods, who were humiliated and thrown into hell, Tartarus. The titans have the same gods origin, but, due to certain historical injustices humiliated and destitute, deprived of participation in the blessings of life and in government. The revolt of the titans against the gods is an idea that was picked up by the revolutionary movement of Europe of XVIII-XX centuries.
Appeal to the Titanic was typical of many leftist revolutionaries – Marx, Bakunin, Savinkova.
It is significant that the theorists of the Titanic was directly related to the secret societies, the media, the “alternative sacredness”. Bakunin was a prominent Freemason, Savinkov was keenly interested in Gnosticism, the occult, mysticism. If you carefully comprehend the revolutionary humanism of these authors, we see in it a direct analogue tantricheskoy idea that the head parallel hierarchies are “Divya”, “God”, i.e. people who quickly overcame all of the limitations inherent to the human race, and become some kind of “supermen”.
The functions and structure of alternative sacredness carefully examined the new left philosophers such as Georges Bataille, Maurice Blanchot, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, and others. It left post-Marxist, partly anarchist thinkers first became interested in the presence of the sacred at the origins of revolutionary movements.
The man who rebels against the outside world with the goal of radical liberation from roles and functions, for subsequent transformation into a full-fledged “sovereign man” – titanium or “divyu” – German philosopher and writer Ernst Junger calls “by anarcho».
Anarchy is not “anarchist”, not just a supporter of the anarchist ideology. This is not a political but a metaphysical figure, free from social and ideological constraints. This paradigmatic ontological reality that precedes specific revolutionary designs – including the anarchist. Anarchy – sovereign people, which recognizes only the internal and external authorities denies. In a sense, he becomes “arbitrarily”, i.e., dictating to himself his free will.
All these concepts somehow derived from the teachings of Friedrich Nietzsche ‘s Superman. And every time these theories approaching ancient esoteric formula that describes the ontological status of the head of the initiatic organization “Divya”, the alternative pole of the sacred.
Nihilism in political or religious spheres, when man proclaims his own values contrary to the values generally accepted, that subverts the beliefs of the majority for the sake of unbelief or of faith, considered therefore, is a manifestation of the parallel alternative of sacredness, which, when the success of the uprising, it becomes in the future a positive basis of a new cult, lies in the Foundation of a new socio-political doctrines, and gradually of alternative sacredness turns into a sacredness.
The way a sovereign man, Superman, titanium is not just a path of destruction; the desire to overcome the external borders, even justified sacred, makes itself felt quite positive, creative will – the desire to go to the roots of reality directly, bypassing a complex system of representations and symbolic chains.
Definition of nonconformism in relation to the basics of Political
We give summarizing conclusions regarding the ontology of non-conformism in relation to the Political:
- The ratio of power:
Nonconformity claims of illegitimacy or partial illegitimacy of power, the exhaustion of its validity or lack thereof; the denial of any of this power as unfair – it is unfair in relation to the sacredness of this alternative, which serves as a new starting point.
The next step is the adoption of a new (alternative) models and structures of power.
- The purpose and project:
The assertion that the main goal of a Political wrong and inadequate, what is the true purpose and projects must be other.
Ontological nonconformity argues that the existing hierarchy is completely (or partly) aboutnot meeting the true ontological proportions. Proposed change of hierarchical principles and basic criteria of selection.
- The legal system:
Right as instrumental Political projection should be reviewed in favor of those forces who are disadvantaged in the existing Political structure. The people making and implementing nonconformity political project, as a rule, form a “revolutionary elite”. This “revolutionary elite” always has a specific social background. In nonconformer project legal model line up based on whatthis social origin in each case. For example, if the “revolutionary elite” is formed from the Kshatriyas, the legal requirements will be focused on expanding their rights. In the case of the revolution “the third estate” we have a different legal system, etc.
A special case of this phenomenon is the concept of “revolutionary law”. The revolutionary law is valid in this historical moment, when one sacral system is in the process of change, but this change has not yet ended, did not reach its logical ending. “Revolutionary right” is an extremely flexible reality, allowing better to understand the specifics of the earlier legal system, which is denied, and the specifics of the new system, which was approved.
In alternative sacredness occurs a new collective identity and changes in the quality of the main subject. Often we are talking about the transfer of the concept of the subject of sovereignty into a new reality – caste, class, estate, religious or ethnic group, etc.
- The concept of revolutionary violence:
Nonconformity appeals to violence, because for the approval of alternative models is necessary to the existing crush. In the normal case in any political system the violence is directed against those who violate domestic legislation, the basic Political norms, as well as to reflect potential external aggression or conquest of foreign spaces. Revolutionary violence is directed in a completely different direction – against the existing system and, implicitly, against the sacredness on which it was founded. Thus, revolutionary violence carries elements of the new “titanomachy” hoping for a different outcome – different from classical Greek mythology, where the victory in the battle with the titans was won by the gods.
Revolutionary violence is a revolt against the existing system based on the sacred premises. It is called “ideological war”.
- Value system:
Nonconformity insists on changing the value systems. The political serves the area, the operational field, where the mechanisms for the effective implementation of this change.
The political cannot, in itself, give rise to value systems, but it is a tool through which the fate of these value systems. It does not produce values, but depending on the state of Political domination systems of value changes (or remains the same). Ontological non-conformism is a manufacturer of alternative value systems that are embedded in the Political with a revolution or its equivalent.
Thus, despite the fact that it may seem like a political non-conformism is just nihilistic side of the political process, that the revolution is only the destruction and rejection of, actually, it is not, because it is in nonconformal environment and formulation of new value systems that will underpin the upcoming sacred model, predetermining its quality and its structure.