“The experience of actual combat is simply priceless”


“The experience of actual combat is simply priceless”

The Director General of tactical missiles Corporation Boris Obnosov on how rockets are designed, manufactured and sold



The products of the Corporation “Tactical missiles” (tactical missiles Corporation) is actively used from the beginning of the air campaign in Syria. On the tasks and prospects of the company, about import substitution and the relationship with the Ministry of defence, as well as hypersonic weapons to the special correspondent of “Kommersant” IVAN SAFRONOV said the CEO of the Corporation BORIS OBNOSOV.

— What is the impact of the economic situation on the financial performance of tactical missiles Corporation?

— Revenues for 2015 amounted to about 160 billion rubles., net consolidated profit more than 14 billion rubles Is quite a good performance. Every year KTRV adds 20% to 30%, were the years when the gains were large. If you take the entire existence of the Corporation, and the following year it is already 15 years, revenue has increased from 28 to 30 times. This was achieved not only through productivity growth but also due to the increase in the number of enterprises that initially there were six, and now 31.Until recently, there were 32 enterprises, but today, we are joined JSC “machine-building design Bureau “Iskra” and OAO “Gorizont” (manufacturer of airfield and ground equipment, as well as units.—“Kommersant”). The labour productivity growth is ahead of volume annually wage.

During this time there have been major changes in the structure of the revenues. If in the beginning 2000-x years we have the lion’s share was accounted for by exports, it now has dramatically increased the share of state defense order — in my estimation, it’s somewhere between 60% to 70% of total revenue. But this does not mean that we have dropped the volume of exports, just its share decreased. In General, after joining the Corporation NPO Mashinostroyenia on the rights of the company, the export portfolio has increased.

— So now earn more for the government Contracting?

— The volume of orders through the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation is constantly growing, but their profitability is low. This is due to the fact that every year we have developed new products, which requires huge deployment costs and the development of production, and this occurs at the expense of our own funds. Yes, there is a Federal target program “Development oboronno-an industrial complex till 2020”, but — especially in the early years of the development of new products still requires a lot of equity. The profitability remains at the level of 4-5%.

And much you this program helps?

— If it were not for this programme, then we would not be able to achieve this revenue growth. Consider that over the past three years we have completed testing of 14 new products. Each of them should be put in mass production which will lead to preparation of a huge amount of tooling, documentation. Because often the issue does not begin with four or five samples, and hundreds. This imposes a serious burden on the whole team.

What you do now and sea underwater weapons, such as the existence of complicated KTRV?

— In 2015, KTRV entered the concern “Sea underwater weapon — Gidropribor” with all their “daughters”. We were faced with a very difficult task in its structure were very heterogeneous enterprises, some of them were burdened with debt and serious underutilization of capacity. Today we got acquainted with their financial and economic situation, assess the ability of the Directors. In may by presidential decree, all of the shares of “Gidropribor” tactical missiles Corporation transferred as a property contribution. Work on consolidation of efforts is gaining momentum.

— They say that the plant “Dagdizel” in General, is in critical condition.

— The situation there is really complicated: he had a few hundred million roubles of debts under taxes and the salary. To solve this problem, it was necessary to develop a comprehensive financial recovery program, to pay for tax deductions, to disclose Bank account. Helped the government, which has allocated about 600 million rubles and 300 million rubles, we have allocated from their own funds. But it is clear that money alone will not be full: how they are given, so they are wasted if you have no guaranteed order.As a result, in the stabilization of the situation, we have provided strong support of the Ministry of defense and Ministry of industry and trade. The company received a decent order for the execution of work.

— What are the difficulties in integrating businesses operating in the Maritime theme, KTRV? Some experts believe that the Corporation is more enchanted by creation of aviation means of destruction.

— This is a misunderstanding. At the end of the 1990s we managed to survive only thanks to the creation of marine weapons, it should be clear and understandable to all. Our gold — without any quotes — a product that was exported and exported to many countries, is a shipborne complex “Uran-e”, created on the basis of the KH-35E. And onshore “Bal-e”, which is the last military exercises hit all the specified Maritime purpose from the first? And the product of our company — high-speed underwater missile “Squall”, which even the Americans were hunting?She’s the only one in the world produced in series, capable of speeds up to 100 meters per second under water. We are engaged in the means of destruction, is a complex “may day”, will finish work on another system detection and destruction of mines. Furthermore, the Region very tightly interacts with “Gidropribor” dashboard “Physicist” — its “brains” produced by the enterprise. All desalination plants for submarines, mine sweepers manufactures our “Krasny Gidropress”.

In the creation of underwater weapons has its own specifics. This is a completely different environment, completely different density, but the physics processes, fluid dynamics, technology chain very close. Dimensions and caliber torpedo weapons and air weapons are really similar. Machinery equipment companies of the Corporation ready to deploy their production. And this is a significant savings for the state. Therefore, the feasibility of enterprises and production capabilities, and design personnel, which is not much and that should be protected, was obvious.I am convinced that in existing circumstances we should not compete on the domestic market, if there are good prospects on the outside. The only thing I regret is the fact that integration was not carried out before.

— What would happen if this happened five years ago?

The results would have been more noticeable. We have now established the work of the Board of Directors, has developed together with the Ministry of defence a comprehensive development program for underwater weapons. A similar program we created in 2007-2008, aviation assets, and for many years it was for us a road map on which we were moving. Now such work will be carried on the torpedo armament.

Never thought to take to itself the Maritime enterprise “Radioprylad”, which is now in poor condition?

— Such conversations was, but because he is a supplier of components for the production of Dubna machine-building plant (part of AFK “Sistema”.— “Kommersant”), it would have to purchase it. But the plant thrives in the AFC, so this issue is not relevant for us.

In General, the policy of tactical missiles Corporation is somewhat different from the positions of some of our colleagues. We do not seek to create new plants in an “open field”: our policy is to adding weight to existing facilities. So, in the Orenburg “Arrow” employs more than 7 thousand people, and loading was 30%. With the entry of this asset part of tactical missiles Corporation, the situation has radically changed. Now this enterprise is loaded, that is, the eyeballs. In my opinion, the shortage of funds and expertise, this approach is more rational.

This year, the Ministry of defense has tightened control system over the expenditure of funds under the state defense order. Are you comfortable working in such conditions?

A difficult question. Always, when you enter something new, then get used to it. And that introduced the Ministry of defense, is fundamentally new: a separate invoice for each order, working only through authorized banks. The process of adapting these rules to the realities is extremely complex. For example, I need to purchase the Titan on three orders: one for a hundred pounds, the second twenty, the third at half a ton and thus need to draw up three contracts. Well, anyone interested to sell the Titan in this volume? That VSMPO-AVISMA is interested in supply of the metal in kilograms?Interesting to put tons of large corporations for example, Boeing. Moreover, with bulk purchase for the purchaser to receive discounts. But I am sympathetic to the innovations of the Ministry, because they need to control every ruble. From this point of view, probably, such steps are justified. On the other hand, you cannot have the same laws that apply all the time: like it or not, but life makes its own adjustments. Know that we are preparing amendments that would somewhat simplify the work on this scheme.

— Your Corporation kept the money in Nota-Bank, whose activities are now suspended?

— We cooperate only with those banks, which the Central Bank recommended to work with the strategic enterprises. If you look closely, about two weeks before the revocation of Nota-Bank’s license, it was included in the list of reliable banks. And, unfortunately, some of our items there.

— Big?

— Enough.

— How do you intend to return?

— The Committee of creditors, the controlling bankruptcy proceedings, became our representative. Part of the money has been returned. Keep working, hope to get the remaining funds.

In the Syrian campaign was involved products manufactured at your facility. What did the results of their application?

— I believe that the experiences that were gained during actual combat are invaluable. One who believes that it is possible to conduct tests of a product and thus ensure its accurate use in any theatre of war is not always right. It showed all the armed conflicts of recent decades: whether “desert Storm”, whether it is developments in Yugoslavia… Yeah, with real weapons of a certain specificity, want or not want, but manifested. Here in Syria, for example, a different climate zone, different humidity, different underlying surface…Take laser illumination: no one knew how she will behave at start-up in the morning, when relatively cool, but rises from the ground haze, and as the day when the air is heated to 40 degrees. Everything requires testing in real conditions. And the information that we received, again, invaluable to us as developers.

— It is true that some businesses KTRV had to go to work in three shifts?

Yes. This is due to the implementation of state defense orders and production of new products. For example, our design Bureau “Detal” in Kamensk-Uralsk or Smolensk aircraft plant, having a highly strenuous tasks.

— What products do you associate the most potential for defence cooperation?

Almost all our products have a good export potential. We have updated the range of products for foreign customers: for example, anti-ship missiles KH-35E and KH-35UE — second range is about twice more than the previous version. It is fully digital, has a high noise immunity, may be suitable to the target from different directions. Despite the fact that outwardly they are similar, KH-35UE is a fundamentally new product.Or anti-radar missile KH-31PD was increased to 250 km range, that can make it start out of range of enemy air defenses and thus increases the survivability of the aircraft. In high demand by our foreign customers also use missiles “air-air” of various ranges. We are expanding our offer and guided aviation bombs. In the near future turn into a bomb caliber 250 kg, and the rest of the product caliber 500 and 1500 kg will significantly increase the range and accuracy of delivery. A stable interest to coastal complexes “Bastion” and “Bal-e” operational-tactical and tactical actions accordingly.

The Brahmos project Russia and India is equally interesting?

— I am sure that this project has a great future. This is a sample of mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries. We are now in the process of adapting this missile to aircraft carriers, I think that within two years this work with colleagues complete.

— Difficult is the process?

— He goes as it should go: we and our Indian colleagues understand that this kind of work cannot be made in a week or a month. Schedule has been agreed and is being implemented.

— In what condition are now hypersonic projects? Ten years ago, this topic has not been paid little attention.

— It’s true. So, in fact, we raised this issue with the leadership of the country. The theme of hypersonic occurred at different times depending on the state of the economy, science and technology, but in the perestroika years has been almost forgotten. But I thought and still think that the hypersonic is that subject, whose development could provide a huge positive effect on all branches of science. Whether it is aerodynamics, computational methods, engine technologies, materials. We work closely with academic universities and wounds.I hope that soon we will have a meeting with the leading scientists on the fundamental issues of development and creation of hypersonic technologies.

Now this area is given due attention, which can not but rejoice. Conducted several projects with the Foundation for advanced studies at the Military-industrial Commission. Believe me, we already have interesting results in this direction.

— Backlog from other countries is great?

— If you compare with USA and China… something is better, something we have. You just need to understand that this topic requires a thorough and integrated approach. You know how we sometimes think? Think asymmetric response, a quick something from the store and boom! — it’s okay, the enemy is defeated. With hypersonic, so it does not have to invest large resources in research and field experiments. But the expected results will be worth it.

And when Russia may see hypersonic weapons?

— I think that in the beginning of the next decade.

— How are the tests of the first samples?

— Can’t reveal all the details, but some of the work we already have.

Did you use achievements of the USSR? I mean SRW is “Cold” and “Cold-2”.

— Of course — those who do not remember the past are doomed to failure. And in the Soviet Union was engaged in this subject since the 1960-ies.

We are all aware that to make a hypersonic weapon would be simply impossible, although the technology reached the required level. Imagine how a seeker at speeds of 8-10 Mach (Mach 1 is about 300 m/s)? Under these conditions, the surface of the rocket formed plasma temperatures prohibitive. No one knew how it would affect the operation of systems and components. Now these questions are being worked out.

It is no coincidence that in the United States at the beginning of this century there was a “Strategy of a lightning strike”, which provides for the achievement of any point of the globe within 60 minutes to damage the enemy’s infrastructure. As part of its implementation of the Pentagon was formed by the joint office for hypersonic to work connected the largest industrial companies. Americans pay great attention to this matter: unit X-51 Waverider for 240 seconds kept the speed of Mach 5.1. A respectable figure.

— Ukraine has imposed a ban on the supply of products of the defense enterprises of the Russian Federation. Tactical missiles Corporation bought there engines and components for homing. This question is closed now?

The idea of such a ban is not the best for the two countries. Together with “Motor Sich” we could make serious money and for Russia and for Ukraine. The KH-35E was a Ukrainian engine, and on the X-35UE — is already the engine of the Rybinsk “Saturn”, which is superior to the Ukrainian variant. Homing the situation is the following: buy them at the Kiev “Arsenal”, and now have shifted to the production of the Azov optical-mechanical plant, part of the tactical missiles Corporation. That is, you had not just import substitution, and the transition to the product of the fundamental new quality.No more cooperation with Ukraine we have: with the Directors of Ukrainian enterprises I’ve always had a great relationship, but you have to understand — we’re not doing policy. If a country does not want to cooperate, it can not be forced.

— Sanctions reflected in the modernization of the machinery of production?

— There were some difficulties: we wanted to order one type of machine abroad, but was refused. And our machine does not need through the year and not in a single instance, and as soon as possible and series. As they say, and the flea Shoe, but who needs one? There is another problem. Previously, we purchased, for example, 20 machines abroad. Still need three, but the sanctions do not allow. Buy domestic counterparts — and are immediately confronted with the problem of maintenance. But the ice in this direction started.At the Moscow exhibition for machine tools in may of this year demonstrated an interesting equipment for the machining of the Russian production. I hope that this area will develop rapidly.

— Ban on export of microelectronics from the United States and the European Union on KTRV somehow affected?

— This is a serious problem. Two years ago, power companies were insufficient to offset those purchases that we made abroad. Due to certain reserves we have experienced a transitional period, and the company went at the right pace. Although the delay in deliveries are still being felt, and the quality of work. But the movement in the right direction obviously.

— What hopes connect with new GPV-2025?

— We are optimistic that the new programme orders for aircraft ordnance, naval underwater weapon would meet the needs of the Armed forces of Russia. The President has repeatedly said that it is high-precision and high— speed weapons, and this is our profile. To achieve 70% degree of equipment with modern weapons by 2020, we need to continue to work hard.

— We often talk about conversion in the defence industry. What is the conversion for KTRV?

— We only deal with the production of very complex products, and go to the manufacture of “pots and pans” is just a shame, and we have others related to the security of the state. Of course you need to find a niche in the civil market. First and foremost is the production of medical equipment, certain practices in this field are available. But the question is that someone needs to buy.

Considering the Assembly of the Smolensk aircraft plant civil aircraft — at the time the company was engaged in repair of Yak-40 and Yak-42, put the last batch of training aircraft Yak-18 for the defense Ministry. The plant is ready for the license to develop the production of the plane “Finist” and An-2. But I sincerely hope that this universal conversion, as it was in the 1990-ies. We must do what we can do well.

Interview by Ivan Safronov

Boris Obnosov V.

Own business

Born January 26, 1953 in Moscow. Graduated from Moscow aviation Institute majoring in “mechanical engineer aircraft” (1976), Moscow state University, specialty “applied mathematics” (1983).

From 1977 he worked at the Department of Aviation robotic systems” in MAI, was promoted from Junior researcher to head of the Department. 1994-1998 — first Secretary permanent mission to the UN. In 1998, a senior adviser for security Affairs and disarmament in the Russian foreign Ministry. 1998-2001 — Deputy General Director of FSUE “Russian technologies”, Federal state unitary enterprise “Promexport — defense technology”, Advisor to General Director of FSUE “Promexport”.From 2001 to 2003 — Advisor to the General Director, head of defense technologies and space, head of the Department of defense technologies and space at Rosoboronexport. From March 13, 2003 — the General Director of JSC “Corporation “Tactical missile armament”.

Doctor of technical Sciences. Awarded the order of Friendship “For merits before Fatherland” IV degree.

JSC “Corporation “Tactical missile armament”

Company profile

The Corporation was established in 2002 on the basis of FGUP gnpts “Zvezda-Strela” (Korolev). One of the largest structures in the Russian defence industry. Unites 32 enterprises specializing in the production of high-speed aircraft guided missiles X-31 different purpose, guided aerial bombs (such as KAB-500Kr), torpedo (project Shkval-e), guided missiles for air defense systems, aerospace technology and electronic equipment. Also deals with repair and service of manufactured products, provision of licensed production of exported products.The scope of activities of the Corporation includes the production of civilian products: medical equipment, wind turbines, drilling rigs etc.

100% of the shares of the Corporation owned by the government. Revenue in 2015 amounted to 160 billion rubles., net profit — more than 14 billion rubles.


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