Putin’s Secret Force Multiplier: Special Operations Forces | Roger McDermott

http://www.jamestown.org/programs/edm/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=45360&cHash=d0fc14bbbdb13a9ebae760dddd6257f6#.Vx_YlXrw-zk

Publication: Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 13 Issue: 81

One in three questions posed to President Vladimir Putin during his recent annual live phone-in show covered issues of national security. Public interest in events in Donbas has apparently shrunk substantially, and the only concerns expressed about the Islamic State (IS) were limited to worries about fighters possibly returning Russia. Putin clarified that the Syria withdrawal was never intended to mark a pull-out of all Russian forces, adding that the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) is capable of further successes. The level of air power Russia deploys and uses in Syria depends on the success of its military advisors in conducting the intense train-and-equip program for the SAA. Some of these advisors are personnel belonging to Russia’s most secretive military organization: the Special Operations Forces Command (Komandovaniye Sil Spetsial’nykh Operatsiy—KSSO). These forces are acclaimed for their roles in seizing Crimea and, more recently, for their involvement in operations in Syria. They constitute an important force multiplier in the Kremlin’s efforts to apply small numbers of military personnel and assets to achieve maximum impact toward political-military objectives (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19).

The KSSO—probably numbering no more than 1,000 personnel in total—is a relatively new organization in Russia’s military toolkit, but a recent article in Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer sheds fresh light on its origins, development and purpose. The received narrative about the creation of the KSSO attributes its formation to the new defense leadership in early 2013: Defense Minister Army-General Sergei Shoigu and Chief of the General Staff (CGS) Army-General Valeriy Gerasimov. Indeed, announcing the creation of the KSSO in March 2013, Gerasimov confirmed that it resulted from extensive study of the experience of the structure of special forces in foreign countries, with Russia’s defense ministry forming such a command in addition to the existing various types of special forces across the power ministries. However, Gerasimov’s predecessor Nikolai Makarov had also expressed this interest much earlier, with an experiment in 2009 to create an office of special operations subordinate directly to the CGS. By early 2012, Makarov was talking about forming a KSSO, with plans for up to nine special-purpose brigades and expansion of the existing system of military intelligence special forces (GRU Spetsnaz) (RIA Novosti, March 6, 2013).

Indeed, the original plans to form the KSSO were designed to integrate existing special forces centers, forming a single command that would be accountable to the defense minister. These plans were devised by the General Staff and GRU Spetsnaz and submitted to the then-defense minister, Anatoliy Serdyukov, in October 2012. But Serdyukov flatly rejected the proposals. These were later resubmitted after the change in defense leadership, with supporting arguments advanced that it aimed at optimizing and reorganizing existing structures (Izvestia, November 27, 2012).

It is precisely this context that is addressed by Alexei Mikhailov in his article in Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer. Mikhailov notes the role played by these special operations forces in Syria: namely, guiding and correcting air strikes, including the use of cruise missiles, and acting in other capacities. His starting point in tracing the origins of the KSSO are not in 2009 and Makarov’s interest, but rather a decade earlier, pointing out several developments under CGS Anatoliy Kvashnin. Mikhailov noted that, in 1999, a specialist training center was formed in Solnechnogorsk, to report directly to the CGS. The center was known as “Senezh,” with its operatives referred to as “podsolnukhami.” It drew heavily on the experience of counter-insurgency and special operations in Chechnya (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19).

Mikhailov discusses the fact that until the KSSO resolved such issues, there were, in effect, four distinct and disparate areas for special forces training. These stemmed from sources of recruitment through to mission type. Airborne Forces rehearsed difficult jumps in order to fulfill a special role during operations. Others were trained in mountain warfare, with specialist training at the Mount Elbrus training center “Terskol.” Additional requirements were linked to the need to storm buildings or seize various enemy targets in difficult conditions or terrain. Finally, maritime specialist skills training was needed by forces operating at sea to capture or sabotage enemy ships of off-shore facilities. Some also argued that the experience in Chechnya yielded an additional niche area for the special forces—providing protection for senior military personnel—but this never really succeeded. In other words, the reformists in the General Staff had come to identify problems in the use of special forces that were rooted in preparing highly trained specialists operating in several different areas. Despite this, the Senezh Center was marked out by building a culture of teamwork among its trainees, and this was increasingly a factor in recruitment—namely, the ability of each candidate to work in a team. According to Mikhailov’s interlocutors, this principle is strictly followed in the KSSO (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19).

Podsolnukhami” from the “Senezh,” were extensively deployed and saw action in Chechnya, and more recently in anti-piracy operations in the Horn of Africa; understandably, their activities are classified as top secret. However, it appears that the experience of operations in Chechnya and abroad revealed that the subordination of the Senezh operatives was not optimal. Serdyukov made changes leading to the later creation of the KSSO. The defense ministry Senezh Special Operations Center reported directly to the CGS, while Serdyukov frequently visited the Center and took an interest in its development. He is credited, for example, with placing Il-76 transporters at its disposal 24/7 (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19).

By 2010, the Russian defense ministry had a second Special Operations Center, in Kubinka, subordinated to the chief of the GRU. Its creation was overseen by Serdyukov’s aide Lieutenant-General Alexander Miroshnichenko, who previously headed the Federal Security Service (FSB) Special Operations Center (Tsentr Spetsial’nogo Naznacheniya—TsSN FSB). Relations between these centers soon deteriorated as they promoted competing views on how the special forces should develop. It is suggested that the FSB “Alfa” approach concentrates on encouraging individualism, in contrast to the Senezh Center (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19).

The resolution to this internal conflict came in March 2013, with the formal creation of the KSSO. And with it, these structures were subordinated in a more cohesive manner. Major-General Alexey Dyumin was appointed commander of the KSSO, seen by many as a compromise figure. Miroshnichenko, continues to attract into the new structure his former subordinates from the TsSN FSB (Voyenno Promyshlennyy Kuryer, April 19). It appears, therefore, that its recruits are mainly a mixture of former members of the GRU Spetsnaz and FSB Alfa.

http://izvestia.ru/news/540120

Fighters of the fourth dimension

Russian special operations forces have chosen an adaptive approach

The command of special operations forces remains one of the most closed structures in the armed forces. It is known that only in the last six months in Syria killed two soldiers MTR: Fedor Zhuravlev and became posthumously a Hero of Russia Alexander Prokhorenko.

Soldiers of the special operations forces performed a vital task. Made and adjusted air strikes, including cruise missiles on positions of the banned in Russia “Islamic state”, saved the flight data recorders of the downed Turkish military aircraft of Russian frontline bomber su-24M. This is a small part of the list.

History special operations forces began in 1999, when in Solnechnogorsk near Moscow was established the Center of training of specialists, and in fact a military unit of special purpose, directly subordinated to the chief of the Main intelligence Directorate. Later, the center called Senezh, and the soldiers became known as “the sunflowers”. One of the founding fathers was the then chief of General staff army General Anatoly Kvashnin.

Sunflowers eliminated and captured a high-ranking militants found and destroyed the bandit base and caches

Sometimes this is referred to as training centre, but according to several interlocutors “Military-industrial courier”, “Senezh” never wore such “consoles”, and the words “training” served as more of a cover-up, but also emphasized the special status of the parts.

Originally formed four areas of special operations. Soldiers of the airborne practiced complex jumps – how long, and with opening the parachute immediately after separation from the Board. The possession of such methods allows the commandos quietly for the enemy to fly tens of kilometers. Specialists jumping day and night using night vision devices, in bad weather, with strong winds and fog.

Soldiers of the mountain areas become combat climbers, learned to storm the mountain peaks, to capture and hold the passes, glaciers. Training of specialists was held, in particular, on the basis located in the Elbrus region training centre “Terskol”. Soldiers have made a challenging ascent, even climbed to the top of mount Elbrus.

Special forces assault areas studied not only to take the house and other buildings. Tasks were set much wider – the seizure of enemy targets in various conditions, on any terrain.

The soldiers of the marine areas mastered all kinds of water areas, were developed in the scuba equipment with the use of special towing and light boats. Learn to capture ships and coastal structures.

Already the experience of fighting in Chechnya in the centre appeared the fifth direction – the protection of senior military officials. The Minister of defence to protect employees of the FSO. But in the conditions of operations of such officials as the chief of the General staff, commander of the district, formerly frequented, at best, scouts or commandos. The preparation of such “security guards”, to put it mildly, left much to be desired. Therefore the question of creating a specialized unit dedicated to the protection of high-ranking representatives of the Ministry of defense, before the advent of the fifth direction was acute.

Fighters of the fourth dimension
Photo: miI.ru

At the same time, according to interlocutors of the “Military-industrial courier” in the center never existed hard binding the fighters to a particular direction. All the sunflowers were learning to skydive, to hike in the mountains, swim with an aqualung, to storm the house. But depending on the task the elements of the training for the soldiers were more recessed.

Moreover, the command tried to experts at the time the services were carried out in several directions. Carried out the exchange of experience, knowledge, skills and abilities between units. For example, a fighter who came from the airborne areas in the sea, not only studied the peculiarities of working on the water, but also shared with his comrades the skills of jumps with a parachute.

Since its formation direction were manned exclusively by officers and ensigns. Recruits served only in the economic units or drivers.

The future of “sunflowers” was selected not only in units and subunits of the airborne troops and special forces, but also among tankers, gunners, infantry, even officers, air defense, and NBC. Several times a year “buyers” from GRU visited the military unit, studied personal files of servicemen and chose suitable candidates.

But it has just started. Officers and non-commissioned officers arrived in Solnechnogorsk, where they underwent the so-called fees, and the actual entrance test, where checked and physical training of the future fighters of the MTR, and personal qualities, and most importantly – the ability to work in a team.

The sources of the “Military-industrial courier” stress: the basic principle of the center is not to prepare individual fighter with excellent skills and abilities, and to create a team that acts as a single organism. This principle, strictly case to comply with during all the years of existence of the “Senezh” always led “sunflowers” to victories.

Your path and cars for him

If you compare the organizational structure of training Center with performing similar tasks the American “Delta and DEVGRU, British 22nd regiment of the SAS and German KSK, it is striking that the Western “squads” (similar to areas in our center) do not have orientation for a specific task – they, so to speak, universal. In particular, in the 22nd regiment of each of the four squads divided into four companies: airborne, marine, mining and automotive.

But as demonstrated by the Russian experience of combat use of special forces, a universal system in most cases is not optimal. For example, if a detachment of special operations forces fighting in the mountains, it is best to have in its composition more “climbers” and the stormtroopers, but fewer Marines and sailors. That’s why our professionals unlike Western are combined teams, where depending on the objectives of the group are transmitted from various directions. According to interlocutors “MIC”, it is not universal and adaptive approach.

In the special operations forces of NATO countries consider it necessary to create separate units, trained to infiltrate behind enemy lines, to make raids and ambushes in specialized automotive vehicles such as Land Rover Pink Panther” in the 22nd SAS regiment, “Pinzgauer” in the American “Delta”.

The experience of the Russian MTR showed that the type of domestic armored cars “the Tiger” in most cases not suited to handle the challenges facing special operations forces. Therefore, the choice fell on a four-wheel buggy, in the “Senezh” praised Israeli SUVs “Sibar”.

The leadership of the Russian centre from the outset paid close attention not just to the training of snipers, and the training of professionals capable of conducting high-precision shooting and solving a wide range of tasks. Initially, these needs were procured by the Finnish high-precision systems TRG-42 firms, “SACO”, later came the British AWP developed by a legendary marksman Malcolm Cooper. Separately studied large-caliber sniper rifle of different companies, particularly South African “Travel”.

In Chechnya and abroad

Immediately after creating of the Centre of training his fighters were on the front lines. In 1999 the militant Wahhabis invaded Dagestan, but were defeated, and a few months later, Russian troops began a counter-terrorist operation in Chechnya.

Fighters of the fourth dimension
Photo: miI.ru

It is noteworthy that the name “sunflowers” was assigned to the soldiers of the center after their first trip to the Caucasus. During that visit they put soldiers of Panama, which did not exist in other units and divisions of special purpose. According to one version, the hats were just emerging summer field kit SPN-2. At the other is Panama, which the soldiers saw in one of the American fighters were bought in a shop that sells Western uniforms and equipment.Be that as it may, in unusual form, but also because the centre is not far from the station of suburban trains Sunflower, his men and earned the nickname “the sunflowers”. Later drawing sun flower in the background of the crossed sword and arrow came on the Chevron centre.

Despite the fact that its operation in Chechnya is still classified as “top secret” reportedly, “sunflowers” eliminated and captured a high-ranking militants, were found and destroyed bases and hideouts of bandits, to solve other important tasks. As I recall the interlocutors of the “military industrial complex”, from the fighters of the centre required not 100 percent guarantee that the task will be completed, and all 300. They simply had no margin for error.

One event in the center don’t like to remember. In fall 1999, was captured by the Chechen militants were senior Lieutenant Alexei Galkin and Vladimir Pakhomov. How skilled the soldiers were in such a difficult situation still remains unclear. But later the two officers, despite the serious injuries he escaped from captivity and came to his own. Alexey Galkin became a Hero of Russia.

According to some reports, the soldiers of the training Center not only fought in Chechnya, but also solved the problems abroad. In particular, he participated in operations against pirates in the horn of Africa.

Combat experience in Chechnya and the foreign operations showed that the subjection of the center to the chief of the Main intelligence Directorate is not the best solution. The head of military intelligence, for example, cannot give orders to the commander of the air force to “sunflowers” allocated aircraft or helicopters, require quite a long procedure of preparation of request, then its approval. Meanwhile, in some cases, the time for the operation is measured in hours and minutes.

Two centers in new look

The activity of Anatoly Serdyukov as Minister of defense of Russia still faces serious criticism, but it was when it was established the command of special operations forces. Just in the transition to the new look “sunflowers” received the official name of the center of special operations of the Ministry of defense “Senezh”, began to report directly to the chief of the General staff.

Base in Solnechnogorsk Serdyukov visited more than once. The money was allocated for the purchase of weapons and equipment, there are several research works. In the operational control of the “Senezh” moved helicopter squadron from the Center of combat use of army aviation in Torzhok. And in Tver on duty around the clock standing military transport Il-76, ready at any moment to deliver fighters of the MTR at the designated point.

It is believed that in the transition to the new look “Senezh”, as well as special purpose brigade, were reduced, and many of his soldiers either fired or removed from the staff. But it’s not. According to the “Military-industrial courier”, command centre, take the opportunity to have certified their fighters, selecting the best.

Fighters of the fourth dimension
Photo: miI.ru

In the late 2000s in the Russian defense Ministry there was a second Center of a special purpose, subordinate to the chief of the Main intelligence Directorate, with a dislocation in Moscow Kubinka. The advent of a new SPC, nicknamed “Sasabone”, must come at Anatoly Serdyukov to the post of Deputy Minister of defence the General-Lieutenant Alexander Miroshnichenko, who previously headed the office “And” Center of special purpose FSB, simply put – a detachment of “alpha”.

Between Smith and the leadership of the “Senezh” immediately, to put it mildly, a strained relationship. The former commander of “alpha” believed that to create a command of the special operations forces of the Ministry of defence is necessary, relying only on the experience of his former office. The command “sunflowers” reasonably stated that they have their own, equally serious developments and training school, and the task of “alpha” and special operations forces of the military departments differ.

In this situation Serdyukov have adopted a compromise solution – to create a second Center of a special purpose, the formation of which and instructed Alexander Miroshnichenko, attracted to the employment of former employees of the tssn FSB.

Employees of “alpha”, creating “Sasabone”, primarily focused on their own experience. The cornerstone was set for the individual training of the soldiers, great attention was paid to physical training – on the level of sport of high achievements. And teamwork, a key principle of the “Senezh”, the creators of the new center was not a priority.

The source “MIC” says: “the “alpha” is different. They brought in the car to the place of operation, they ran 50 meters and became heroes. Nobody wants to smell socks and to crawl for weeks through the mountains in search of militants.”

In 2013 and this tssn defense Ministry was subordinated to the command of special operations forces. As commander of the CPSR took major-General Alexei Dyumin, which, according to knowledgeable people, has largely been a compromise figure on the background of confrontation between the “Senezh” and Alexander Miroshnichenko, who continued to actively introduce the experience of the tssn FSB.

It is noteworthy that “Sasabone” and has maintained a close relationship with “alpha”. Her former employees, according to many who met the “Military-industrial courier”, instilled in the soldiers of the newly created centre the desire at any price to be the best in everything.

Note the main fighters of both centres continued the traditions established by the founding fathers, performing the most complex tasks: defending the Olympic games in Sochi, performed marvelously in the Crimea, and are now working in Syria.

Published in issue No. 15 (630) 20 April 2016

http://izvestia.ru/news/540120

The General staff asks Shoigu to create a commando

The special forces have to save fellow citizens outside of Russia and to destroy the military and political leadership of the enemy

 

A group of chiefs of staff of the General staff and the Main intelligence Directorate (GRU) asks the Minister of defense Sergei Shoigu to quickly decide the issue of necessity of creation in Russia special operations command (CSR). A senior source in the defense Ministry told “Izvestia” that the developers of the project of such a command sought a meeting with the Minister.

— In October of this year, the project was presented by representatives of the General staff and the GRU for consideration by the then Minister, Serdyukov but without explanation put the resolution “did Not consider it appropriate”, — said the source.

According to the project, part of the special operations command must include the special purpose center of the Ministry of defense “Senezh” (he reports personally to the Minister), one brigade of special forces of the military districts, a helicopter squadron on the basis of the center of combat employment and retraining of personnel of army aviation (tsbp and PLS) in Torzhok, and a squadron of transport Il-76 from the Migalovo airfield near Tver.

— The task of creating such a center was set in 2008, said the officer.

CSR should solve many extremal problems, e.g., the release of hostages in hostile territory, evacuating citizens from local conflict zones, the elimination of gangs. In full-scale war commandos must destroy the political and military leadership of the enemy, his strategic sites, communication nodes, missile launchers, nuclear missiles, etc.

In designing the structure of command, the General staff focused on the experience of France, great Britain, Germany, and in creating some tactical elements in the US. Principal tasks — team “Senezh”, and the spetsnaz brigade and aviation support functions given on the cover fire, transportation and land.

According to a source in the defense Ministry, in fact, CSR is already there. In Torzhok helicopter pilots four years involved in all elements of training in conjunction with the “Senezh”. About as old transport planes from Tver carry special forces on missions.

— Not decided only with the army special forces. This brigade from Tambov or one of the two brigades of the southern military district. Tambov close, and the “southerners” lots of combat experience. They are all equipped by the state, have units of chemical protection, engineering, communications, logistics, — continued the officer.

— All these parts into a single center indicates the interaction to an even higher level and priorities in military training. Now aviation commanders are not attracted to other tasks sluchavshiesya with the “Senezh” crews willingly. Having a unified command, crews will focus on the forces already in normal mode, — said the source.

He said that in Germany and France support the main division provide airborne brigade, in the UK Special Forces Support Group (support group special purpose). Helicopter and transport squadrons are training and fighting together to the ground part constantly, having worked for combat coordination to the smallest detail.

If the General staff were unhappy with Serdyukov’s refusal, in the special forces with the former Minister agree, and argue that CSR should log all army special forces, not individual units.

— In addition to “Senezh” we have seven brigades of ground forces, recon marine village (brigade), specpolk airborne, forces, psychological operations, other special parts. How to be with them? Someone will leave under military command, someone-no. Those same British and French in CSR includes all the specialty parts — said, “Izvestia” officer of one of the brigades.

Candidate of military Sciences Anatoly Matveichuk supports the intentions of the General staff.

Commandos decide not only military but also political and economic objectives. It should be a completely independent structure. Immediately perepodchinenie her all the special units is optional, you can enter them gradually, as you gain practice, the expert said, “Izvestia”.

In his opinion, CSR should report directly to the Supreme commander, and not the defense Minister or chief of staff.

 

http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20130306/926091973.html

Russia decided to create a special operations forces

“Having studied the practices of forming, training and use of special operations forces world’s leading States, the defense Ministry also began to create them”, – said the chief of the General staff army General Valery Gerasimov.

MOSCOW, March 6 — RIA Novosti.The defense Ministry has begun to establish special operations forces and has already formed the corresponding command, said Wednesday the chief of the General staff army General Valery Gerasimov.

“Having studied the practices of forming, training and use of special operations forces the world’s leading States, the defense Ministry also began to create,” he said, addressing the military attaches of foreign States in Moscow.

According to him, the experience of wars and military conflicts of the XXI century shows the increasing role of such forces.

“Create a corresponding command that is engaged in routine work and perform activities of the plan of the Armed forces”, — said the head of the General staff. Already developed a set of guidelines that determine the directions of development, ways of preparation and application of these forces, he concluded.

 

http://www.vpk-news.ru/articles/30318

A direct response of the President

Every third issue of concern to the society, connected with the national security and the military-industrial complex

The traditional straight line of the President of the Russian Federation in the current year compared to 2014-2015-m attracted a large audience. According to the organizers, by the beginning of the live broadcast, the call center has received about 1.5 million calls, of not less than 400 thousand messages, the number of which along the way is continuously growing.

In the first place came domestic issues. The most important topics – the poor condition of roads and delay in wages. We recall that in 2014 and 2015, citizens are most worried about external threats, falling oil prices, the Ukrainian crisis and sanctions against Russia.

National security and the military-industrial complex in the total mass of issues of concern to the Russians, took about 30 percent

Even the Syrian conflict and participation of the Russian military on the backburner, not to mention Ukraine, where the issues of the Russians in fact had no place. But fighting is forbidden in our country “Islamic state” cared about ordinary citizens-only with regard to the possible export of the terrorist threat in Russia.

Meanwhile, the fellow has questions concerning the state defense order and development of the defense industry. In particular, the President addressed the workers of part of the holding “Precision complexes” plant “Shcheglovsky shaft”, one of the leading and busiest military orders gun companies.

If to briefly summarize, national security and the military-industrial complex in the total mass of issues of concern to the Russians, took about 30 percent.

From Syria to Turkey

Answering the question of, do not affect whether the output VC of the Russian Federation from Syria, Vladimir Putin stressed that we are talking only about the reduction of the group. Important point: the head of state emphasized that in Syria with the help of our instructors and advisers for six months to create an efficient army, already successfully stole Palmyra. The remaining Russian forces and means will be enough to continue effective support of the faithful Bashar Assad armed groups.

The implication of the answer, we can assume, is this: following the capture of Palmyra the purpose of the attack on the “Islamic state” will be Aleppo. The second largest city in the country, the President stressed that the economic and industrial capital of Syria.

It is noteworthy that during the “hot line” Vladimir Putin has never mentioned the downed Turkish air force, Russian front-line bomber su-24M. Not sounded the theme of the sanctions imposed in response to the aggressive actions of the Erdogan government.

The Russian leadership cannot prohibit our citizens to visit Turkey, especially as the resorts of this country took millions of Russians every year, said Vladimir Putin. But we cannot ignore the fact that there actually is a civil war, terrorist acts. Therefore, it would be irresponsibility of the Russian government not to warn the Russians about the real risk for tourists in Turkey.

The unexpected surplus

Judging by the straight line, the difficult economic situation affects companies involved in fulfilling state defence order. One of the first messages on the air came from plant worker from Chelyabinsk, engaged in the production of car trailers. A common problem: despite the fact that the company participates in GOZ, workers are not paid their salaries. Meanwhile the Chelyabinsk plant has a serious portfolio of military contracts, its products are equipped with various weapons systems entering the army.

The state defense order is not subject to reduction, assured Vladimir Putin. However, it later said that some long-running projects with long implementation period will be sequestered. However, this was also discussed at last year’s press conference.

A direct response of the President
Photo: rsncontent.ru

“Oboronke” it is necessary gradually to prepare for the conversion. As noted by the head of state, rush orders will have on the current and next year, then will decline. Although if you look at the structure of the current state armaments program, the peak has shifted somewhat and have most likely 2019-2020.

The current program should provide the army with modern weapons by 70-80 percent. Even when discussing the GOZ-2020, the government have made it clear that his main task is to make up for the failure in facilities that occurred in the 90s due to under-funding and collapse of the military-industrial complex. And after the implementation of the program, the government will be ordering the VVT already in working order.Moreover, the GOZ-2020 was to restore the production level, allowing both to fulfill the requests of the Russian security forces and to provide weapons for export in amounts that satisfy customers without any disruptions.

But now, judging by the words of Vladimir Putin, he formed a surplus in capacity, which is advisable to pay for the conversion. This is somewhat unexpected statement, if you remember a couple of years ago they did not have for one hundred percent fulfillment of state defense orders, which led to frequent supply disruptions.

At the same time, the popularity of Russian weapons systems and the demand for them in the world, as stressed by the head of state, is constantly growing. If in 2014, Russia supplied abroad inland water transport at $ 14 billion, last year nearly 15 billion, and export the whole portfolio of our military orders is estimated at $ 50 billion. The demand is such that, as said Vladimir Putin, to supply the export of air defense systems had to build two new plants.

About “moderation” defense order, the President said a year ago, rightly Recalling that in the USSR there were three types of tanks and a large number of other duplicate, by and large is not always needed weapons systems, and it has a very negative impact on the economy of the USSR.

Here it should be noted that the conversion does not necessarily readjust the equipment for the pots and grinder. For example, the demand for special means of protection, produced to equip the combat aircraft and helicopters, appeared in civil aviation (read more in the article “Leverage breakthrough technologies” on page 06). Probably, the excess capacity will be used just for the production of double application.

Compact power

Against the Russian siloviki Vladimir Putin was very clear: their appetites will be reduced. The budgets of the security ministries will be running out. However, while this applies only to the current activity.

Russia’s armed Forces must be compact, highly efficient and that the President emphasized, inexpensive. He noted that our army is already very efficient, but we need to continue to strengthen.

 

 

 

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